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Basis.c

/* 
A* -------------------------------------------------------------------
B* This file contains source code for the PyMOL computer program
C* copyright 1998-2000 by Warren Lyford Delano of DeLano Scientific. 
D* -------------------------------------------------------------------
E* It is unlawful to modify or remove this copyright notice.
F* -------------------------------------------------------------------
G* Please see the accompanying LICENSE file for further information. 
H* -------------------------------------------------------------------
I* Additional authors of this source file include:
-*   Larry Coopet (various optimizations)
-* 
-*
Z* -------------------------------------------------------------------
*/

#ifndef _PYMOL_INLINE

#include"os_predef.h"
#include"os_std.h"

#include"MemoryDebug.h"
#include"Base.h"
#include"Basis.h"
#include"Err.h"
#include"Feedback.h"
#include"Util.h"
#include"MemoryCache.h"
#include"Character.h"

static const float kR_SMALL4 = 0.0001F;
static const float kR_SMALL5 = 0.0001F;
#define EPSILON 0.000001F


/*========================================================================*/
#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int ZLineToSphere(float *base, float *point, float *dir, float radius,
                         float maxial, float *sphere, float *asum, float *pre)
{
  /* Strategy - find an imaginary sphere that lies at the correct point on
     the line segment, then treat as a sphere reflection */

  float intra_p0, intra_p1, intra_p2;
  float radial, axial, axial_sum, dangle, ab_dangle, axial_perp;
  float radialsq, tan_acos_dangle;
  float vradial0, vradial1, vradial2;
  const float _0 = 0.0f;
  float point0 = point[0];
  float point1 = point[1];
  float point2 = point[2];
  register float perpAxis0 = pre[0];    /* was cross_product(MinusZ,dir,perpAxis),normalize */
  register float perpAxis1 = pre[1];
  float intra0 = point0 - base[0];
  float intra1 = point1 - base[1];
  const float dir0 = dir[0];
  const float dir1 = dir[1];
  const float dir2 = dir[2];
  register float dot, perpDist;

  /* the perpAxis defines a perp-plane which includes the cyl-axis */

  /* get minimum distance between the lines */

  perpDist = intra0 * perpAxis0 + intra1 * perpAxis1;
  /* was dot_product3f(intra,perpAxis); */

  if((perpDist < _0 ? -perpDist : perpDist) > radius)
    return 0;

  /*if(fabs(perpDist) > radius)   return 0; */

  dangle = -dir2;               /* was dot(MinusZ,dir) */
  ab_dangle = (float) fabs(dangle);
  if(ab_dangle > (1.0f - kR_SMALL4)) {
    if(dangle > _0) {
      sphere[0] = point0;
      sphere[1] = point1;
      sphere[2] = point2;
    } else {
      sphere[0] = dir0 * maxial + point0;
      sphere[1] = dir1 * maxial + point1;
      sphere[2] = dir2 * maxial + point2;
    }
    return (1);
  }

  if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4)
    tan_acos_dangle = (float) (sqrt1d(1.0 - dangle * dangle) / dangle);
  else
    tan_acos_dangle = MAXFLOAT;

  /* now we need to define the triangle in the perp-plane  
     to figure out where the projected line intersection point is */

  intra_p2 = point2 - base[2];

  /* first, compute radial distance in the perp-plane between the two starting points */

  dot = intra0 * perpAxis0 + intra1 * perpAxis1;
  intra_p0 = intra0 - perpAxis0 * dot;
  intra_p1 = intra1 - perpAxis1 * dot;

  dot = intra_p0 * dir0 + intra_p1 * dir1 + intra_p2 * dir2;
  vradial0 = intra_p0 - dir0 * dot;
  vradial1 = intra_p1 - dir1 * dot;
  vradial2 = intra_p2 - dir2 * dot;

  radialsq = ((vradial0 * vradial0) + (vradial1 * vradial1) + (vradial2 * vradial2));

  /* now figure out the axial distance along the cyl-line that will give us
     the point of closest approach */

  if(ab_dangle < kR_SMALL4)
    axial_perp = _0;
  else
    axial_perp = (float) (sqrt1f(radialsq) / tan_acos_dangle);

  axial =
    (float) sqrt1f(((intra_p0 * intra_p0) + (intra_p1 * intra_p1) + (intra_p2 * intra_p2))
                   - radialsq);

  if((intra_p0 * dir0 + intra_p1 * dir1 + intra_p2 * dir2) >= _0)
    axial = axial_perp - axial;
  else
    axial = axial_perp + axial;

  /* now we have to think about where the vector will actually strike the cylinder */

  /* by definition, it must be perpdist away from the perp-plane becuase the perp-plane
     is parallel to the line, so we can compute the radial component to this point */

  radial = radius * radius - perpDist * perpDist;
  radial = (float) sqrt1f(radial);

  /* now the trick is figuring out how to adjust the axial distance to get the actual
     position along the cyl line which will give us a representative sphere */

  if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4)
    axial_sum = axial - radial / tan_acos_dangle;
  else
    axial_sum = axial;
  /*
     printf("radial2 %8.3f \n",radial); */

  if(axial_sum < _0)
    axial_sum = _0;
  else if(axial_sum > maxial)
    axial_sum = maxial;

  sphere[0] = dir0 * axial_sum + point0;
  sphere[1] = dir1 * axial_sum + point1;
  sphere[2] = dir2 * axial_sum + point2;

  *asum = axial_sum;
  /*  printf("==>%8.3f sphere %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",base[1],sphere[1],axial_perp,axial); */
  return (1);
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int LineToSphere(float *base, float *ray, float *point, float *dir, float radius,
                        float maxial, float *sphere, float *asum)
{
  /* Strategy - find an imaginary sphere that lies at the correct point on
     the line segment, then treat as a sphere reflection */

  register float perpDist, radial, axial, axial_sum, dangle, ab_dangle, axial_perp;
  register float radialsq, tan_acos_dangle;
  register float perpAxis0, perpAxis1, perpAxis2;
  register float intra0, intra1, intra2;
  register float intra_p0, intra_p1, intra_p2;
  register float vradial0, vradial1, vradial2;
  register float dir0 = dir[0], dir1 = dir[1], dir2 = dir[2];
  register float ray0 = ray[0], ray1 = ray[1], ray2 = ray[2];
  float point0 = point[0], point1 = point[1], point2 = point[2];
  register float dot;

  const float _0 = 0.0F;
  const float _1 = 1.0F;

  /*    cross_product3f(ray,dir,perpAxis); */

  perpAxis0 = ray1 * dir2 - ray2 * dir1;
  perpAxis1 = ray2 * dir0 - ray0 * dir2;
  perpAxis2 = ray0 * dir1 - ray1 * dir0;

  /* subtract3f(point,base,intra); */
  intra0 = point0 - base[0];

  /* normalize3f(perpAxis) */
  {
    register float len =
      (float) sqrt1d((perpAxis0 * perpAxis0) + (perpAxis1 * perpAxis1) +
                     (perpAxis2 * perpAxis2));
    intra1 = point1 - base[1];
    /* subtract3f(point,base,intra); */
    if(len > R_SMALL8) {
      len = _1 / len;
      intra2 = point2 - base[2];
      perpAxis0 *= len;
      perpAxis1 *= len;
      perpAxis2 *= len;
    } else {
      intra2 = point2 - base[2];
    }
  }
  /* the perpAxis defines a perp-plane which includes the cyl-axis */

  /* get minimum distance between the lines */

  /* dot_product3f(intra, perpAxis); */
  perpDist = intra0 * perpAxis0;
  perpDist += intra1 * perpAxis1 + intra2 * perpAxis2;

  /*if(fabs(perpDist) > radius)   return 0; */

  dangle = ray0 * dir0;

  if((perpDist < _0 ? -perpDist : perpDist) > radius)
    return 0;

  /* dangle  = dot_product3f(ray, dir); */
  dangle += ray1 * dir1 + ray2 * dir2;

  ab_dangle = (float) fabs(dangle);

  if(ab_dangle > (1.0f - kR_SMALL4)) {
    if(dangle > _0) {
      sphere[0] = point0;
      sphere[1] = point1;
      sphere[2] = point2;
    } else {
      sphere[0] = dir0 * maxial + point0;
      sphere[1] = dir1 * maxial + point1;
      sphere[2] = dir2 * maxial + point2;
    }
    return (1);
  }

  if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4)
    tan_acos_dangle = (float) (sqrt1d(1.0 - dangle * dangle) / dangle);
  else
    tan_acos_dangle = MAXFLOAT;

  /* now we need to define the triangle in the perp-plane  
     to figure out where the projected line intersection point is */

  /* first, compute radial distance in the perp-plane between the two starting points */

  /* dot = dot_product3f(intra,perpAxis); */
  dot = intra0 * perpAxis0 + intra1 * perpAxis1 + intra2 * perpAxis2;

  intra_p0 = intra0 - perpAxis0 * dot;
  intra_p1 = intra1 - perpAxis1 * dot;
  intra_p2 = intra2 - perpAxis2 * dot;

  /* dot = dot_product3f(intra_p, dir); */
  dot = intra_p0 * dir0 + intra_p1 * dir1 + intra_p2 * dir2;

  vradial0 = intra_p0 - dir0 * dot;
  vradial1 = intra_p1 - dir1 * dot;
  vradial2 = intra_p2 - dir2 * dot;

  radialsq = ((vradial0 * vradial0) + (vradial1 * vradial1) + (vradial2 * vradial2));

  /* now figure out the axial distance along the cyl-line that will give us
     the point of closest approach */

  if(ab_dangle < kR_SMALL4)
    axial_perp = _0;
  else
    axial_perp = (float) (sqrt1f(radialsq) / tan_acos_dangle);

  axial = (float) sqrt1f(((intra_p0 * intra_p0) +
                          (intra_p1 * intra_p1) + (intra_p2 * intra_p2)) - radialsq);

  if((intra_p0 * dir0 + intra_p1 * dir1 + intra_p2 * dir2) >= _0)
    axial = axial_perp - axial;
  else
    axial = axial_perp + axial;

  /* now we have to think about where the vector will actually strike the cylinder */

  /* by definition, it must be perpdist away from the perp-plane becuase the perp-plane
     is parallel to the line, so we can compute the radial component to this point */

  radial = radius * radius - perpDist * perpDist;
  radial = (float) sqrt1f(radial);

  /* now the trick is figuring out how to adjust the axial distance to get the actual
     position along the cyl line which will give us a representative sphere */

  if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4)
    axial_sum = axial - radial / tan_acos_dangle;
  else
    axial_sum = axial;
  /*
     printf("radial2 %8.3f \n",radial); */

  if(axial_sum < _0)
    axial_sum = _0;
  else if(axial_sum > maxial)
    axial_sum = maxial;

  sphere[0] = dir0 * axial_sum + point0;
  sphere[1] = dir1 * axial_sum + point1;
  sphere[2] = dir2 * axial_sum + point2;

  *asum = axial_sum;
  /*  printf("==>%8.3f sphere %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",base[1],sphere[1],axial_perp,axial); */
  return (1);
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int FrontToInteriorSphere(float *front,
                                 float *point,
                                 float *dir, float radius, float radius2, float maxial)
{
  float intra_p[3];
  float axial;
  float intra[3], axis[3];
  float sphere[3];

  subtract3f(point, front, intra);
  remove_component3f(intra, dir, intra_p);
  add3f(front, intra_p, intra_p);
  subtract3f(point, intra_p, axis);
  axial = -dot_product3f(axis, dir);

  if(axial < 0.0F)
    axial = 0.0F;
  else if(axial > maxial)
    axial = maxial;

  sphere[0] = axial * dir[0] + point[0];
  sphere[1] = axial * dir[1] + point[1];
  sphere[2] = axial * dir[2] + point[2];

  return (diffsq3f(sphere, front) <= radius2);
}


/*========================================================================*/
#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int ZLineToSphereCapped(float *base, float *point,
                               float *dir, float radius, float maxial,
                               float *sphere, float *asum, int cap1, int cap2, float *pre)
{
  /* Strategy - find an imaginary sphere that lies at the correct point on
     the line segment, then treat as a sphere reflection */

  float perpAxis[3], intra_p[3];
  float perpDist, radial, axial, axial_sum, dangle, ab_dangle, axial_perp;
  float radialsq, tan_acos_dangle;
  float len_proj;
  float intra[3], vradial[3];
  float diff[3], fpoint[3];
  float proj[3];

  perpAxis[0] = pre[0];         /* was cross_product(MinusZ,dir,perpAxis),normalize */
  perpAxis[1] = pre[1];

  /* the perpAxis defines a perp-plane which includes the cyl-axis */

  intra[0] = point[0] - base[0];
  intra[1] = point[1] - base[1];

  /* get minimum distance between the lines */

  perpDist = intra[0] * perpAxis[0] + intra[1] * perpAxis[1];
  /* was dot_product3f(intra,perpAxis); */

  if(fabs(perpDist) > radius) {
    return (0);
  }

  perpAxis[2] = 0.0;
  intra[2] = point[2] - base[2];

  dangle = -dir[2];             /* was dot(MinusZ,dir) */
  ab_dangle = (float) fabs(dangle);
  if(ab_dangle > (1 - kR_SMALL4)) {     /* vector inline with light ray... */
    vradial[0] = point[0] - base[0];
    vradial[1] = point[1] - base[1];
    vradial[2] = 0.0F;
    radial = (float) length3f(vradial);
    if(radial > radius)
      return 0;
    if(dangle > 0.0) {
      switch (cap1) {
      case cCylCapFlat:
        sphere[0] = base[0];
        sphere[1] = base[1];
        sphere[2] = point[2] - radius;
        break;
      case cCylCapRound:
        sphere[0] = point[0];
        sphere[1] = point[1];
        sphere[2] = point[2];
      }
      return (1);
    } else {
      switch (cap1) {
      case cCylCapFlat:
        sphere[0] = base[0];
        sphere[1] = base[1];
        sphere[2] = dir[2] * maxial + point[2] - radius;
        break;
      case cCylCapRound:
        sphere[0] = dir[0] * maxial + point[0];
        sphere[1] = dir[1] * maxial + point[1];
        sphere[2] = dir[2] * maxial + point[2];
      }
      return (1);
    }
  }

  /*tan_acos_dangle = tan(acos(dangle)); */
  tan_acos_dangle = (float) sqrt1f(1 - dangle * dangle) / dangle;

  /*
     printf("perpDist %8.3f\n",perpDist);
     printf("dir %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",dir[0],dir[1],dir[2]);
     printf("base %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",base[0],base[1],base[2]);
     printf("point %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",point[0],point[1],point[2]);
     printf("intra %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",intra[0],intra[1],intra[2]);
     printf("perpAxis %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",perpAxis[0],perpAxis[1],perpAxis[2]);
   */

  /* now we need to define the triangle in the perp-plane  
     to figure out where the projected line intersection point is */

  /* first, compute radial distance in the perp-plane between the two starting points */

  remove_component3f(intra, perpAxis, intra_p);
  remove_component3f(intra_p, dir, vradial);

  radialsq = lengthsq3f(vradial);

  /* now figure out the axial distance along the cyl-line that will give us
     the point of closest approach */

  if(ab_dangle < kR_SMALL4)
    axial_perp = 0;
  else
    axial_perp = (float) sqrt1f(radialsq) / tan_acos_dangle;

  axial = (float) lengthsq3f(intra_p) - radialsq;
  axial = (float) sqrt1f(axial);

  /*
     printf("radial %8.3f\n",radial);
     printf("vradial %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",vradial[0],vradial[1],vradial[2]);
     printf("radial %8.3f\n",radial);
     printf("dangle %8.3f \n",dangle);
     printf("axial_perp %8.3f \n",axial_perp);
     printf("axial1 %8.3f \n",axial);
     printf("%8.3f\n",dot_product3f(intra_p,dir));
   */

  if(dot_product3f(intra_p, dir) >= 0.0)
    axial = axial_perp - axial;
  else
    axial = axial_perp + axial;

  /*
     printf("axial2 %8.3f\n",axial);
   */

  /* now we have to think about where the vector will actually strike the cylinder */

  /* by definition, it must be perpdist away from the perp-plane becuase the perp-plane
     is parallel to the line, so we can compute the radial component to this point */

  radial = radius * radius - perpDist * perpDist;
  radial = (float) sqrt1f(radial);

  /* now the trick is figuring out how to adjust the axial distance to get the actual
     position along the cyl line which will give us a representative sphere */

  if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4)
    axial_sum = axial - radial / tan_acos_dangle;
  else
    axial_sum = axial;

  /*    printf("ab_dangle %8.3f \n",ab_dangle);

     printf("axial_sum %8.3f \n",axial_sum);
   */
  if(axial_sum < 0) {
    switch (cap1) {
    case cCylCapFlat:
      subtract3f(point, base, diff);
      project3f(diff, dir, proj);
      len_proj = (float) length3f(proj);
      dangle = -proj[2] / len_proj;
      if(fabs(dangle) < kR_SMALL4)
        return 0;
      sphere[0] = base[0];
      sphere[1] = base[1];
      sphere[2] = base[2] - len_proj / dangle;
      if(diff3f(sphere, point) > radius)
        return 0;
      sphere[0] += dir[0] * radius;
      sphere[1] += dir[1] * radius;
      sphere[2] += dir[2] * radius;
      *asum = 0;
      break;
    case cCylCapRound:
      axial_sum = 0;
      sphere[0] = point[0];
      sphere[1] = point[1];
      sphere[2] = point[2];
      *asum = axial_sum;
      break;
    case cCylCapNone:
    default:
      return 0;
      break;
    }
  } else if(axial_sum > maxial) {
    switch (cap2) {

    case cCylCapFlat:
      scale3f(dir, maxial, fpoint);
      add3f(fpoint, point, fpoint);
      subtract3f(fpoint, base, diff);
      project3f(diff, dir, proj);
      len_proj = (float) length3f(proj);
      dangle = -proj[2] / len_proj;
      if(fabs(dangle) < kR_SMALL4)
        return 0;
      sphere[0] = base[0];
      sphere[1] = base[1];
      sphere[2] = base[2] - len_proj / dangle;
      if(diff3f(sphere, fpoint) > radius)
        return 0;
      sphere[0] -= dir[0] * radius;
      sphere[1] -= dir[1] * radius;
      sphere[2] -= dir[2] * radius;
      *asum = maxial;
      break;
    case cCylCapRound:
      axial_sum = maxial;
      sphere[0] = dir[0] * axial_sum + point[0];
      sphere[1] = dir[1] * axial_sum + point[1];
      sphere[2] = dir[2] * axial_sum + point[2];
      *asum = axial_sum;
      break;
    case cCylCapNone:
    default:
      return 0;
      break;
    }
  } else {
    sphere[0] = dir[0] * axial_sum + point[0];
    sphere[1] = dir[1] * axial_sum + point[1];
    sphere[2] = dir[2] * axial_sum + point[2];

    *asum = axial_sum;

    /*  printf("==>%8.3f sphere %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",base[1],sphere[1],axial_perp,axial); */
  }
  return (1);
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int LineToSphereCapped(float *base, float *ray,
                              float *point, float *dir, float radius, float maxial,
                              float *sphere, float *asum, int cap1, int cap2)
{
  /* Strategy - find an imaginary sphere that lies at the correct point on
     the line segment, then treat as a sphere reflection */

  float perpAxis[3], intra_p[3];
  float perpDist, radial, axial, axial_sum, dangle, ab_dangle, axial_perp;
  float radialsq, tan_acos_dangle;
  float len_proj;
  float intra[3], vradial[3];
  float diff[3], fpoint[3];
  float proj[3];

  subtract3f(point, base, intra);

  cross_product3f(ray, dir, perpAxis);

  normalize3f(perpAxis);

  /* the perpAxis defines a perp-plane which includes the cyl-axis */

  /* get minimum distance between the lines */

  perpDist = dot_product3f(intra, perpAxis);

  /* was dot_product3f(intra,perpAxis); */

  if(fabs(perpDist) > radius) {
    return (0);
  }

  dangle = dot_product3f(ray, dir);
  ab_dangle = (float) fabs(dangle);

  if(ab_dangle > (1 - kR_SMALL4)) {     /* vector inline with light ray... */
    vradial[0] = point[0] - base[0];
    vradial[1] = point[1] - base[1];
    vradial[2] = point[2] - base[2];
    radial = (float) length3f(vradial);
    if(radial > radius)
      return 0;
    if(dangle > 0.0) {
      switch (cap1) {
      case cCylCapFlat:
        sphere[0] = dir[0] * radius + point[0];
        sphere[1] = dir[1] * radius + point[1];
        sphere[2] = dir[2] * radius + point[2];
        break;
      case cCylCapRound:
        sphere[0] = point[0];
        sphere[1] = point[1];
        sphere[2] = point[2];
      }
      return (1);
    } else {
      switch (cap1) {
      case cCylCapFlat:
        maxial -= radius;
        break;
      }
      sphere[0] = dir[0] * maxial + point[0];
      sphere[1] = dir[1] * maxial + point[1];
      sphere[2] = dir[2] * maxial + point[2];
      return (1);
    }
  }

  /*tan_acos_dangle = tan(acos(dangle)); */
  tan_acos_dangle = (float) sqrt1f(1 - dangle * dangle) / dangle;

  /*
     printf("perpDist %8.3f\n",perpDist);
     printf("dir %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",dir[0],dir[1],dir[2]);
     printf("base %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",base[0],base[1],base[2]);
     printf("point %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",point[0],point[1],point[2]);
     printf("intra %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",intra[0],intra[1],intra[2]);
     printf("perpAxis %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",perpAxis[0],perpAxis[1],perpAxis[2]);
   */

  /* now we need to define the triangle in the perp-plane  
     to figure out where the projected line intersection point is */

  /* first, compute radial distance in the perp-plane between the two starting points */

  remove_component3f(intra, perpAxis, intra_p);
  remove_component3f(intra_p, dir, vradial);

  radialsq = lengthsq3f(vradial);

  /* now figure out the axial distance along the cyl-line that will give us
     the point of closest approach */

  if(ab_dangle < kR_SMALL4)
    axial_perp = 0;
  else
    axial_perp = (float) sqrt1f(radialsq) / tan_acos_dangle;

  axial = (float) lengthsq3f(intra_p) - radialsq;
  axial = (float) sqrt1f(axial);

  /*
     printf("radial %8.3f\n",radial);
     printf("vradial %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",vradial[0],vradial[1],vradial[2]);
     printf("radial %8.3f\n",radial);
     printf("dangle %8.3f \n",dangle);
     printf("axial_perp %8.3f \n",axial_perp);
     printf("axial1 %8.3f \n",axial);
     printf("%8.3f\n",dot_product3f(intra_p,dir));
   */

  if(dot_product3f(intra_p, dir) >= 0.0)
    axial = axial_perp - axial;
  else
    axial = axial_perp + axial;

  /*
     printf("axial2 %8.3f\n",axial);
   */

  /* now we have to think about where the vector will actually strike the cylinder */

  /* by definition, it must be perpdist away from the perp-plane becuase the perp-plane
     is parallel to the line, so we can compute the radial component to this point */

  radial = radius * radius - perpDist * perpDist;
  radial = (float) sqrt1f(radial);

  /* now the trick is figuring out how to adjust the axial distance to get the actual
     position along the cyl line which will give us a representative sphere */

  if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4)
    axial_sum = axial - radial / tan_acos_dangle;
  else
    axial_sum = axial;

  /*    printf("ab_dangle %8.3f \n",ab_dangle);

     printf("axial_sum %8.3f \n",axial_sum);
   */
  if(axial_sum < 0) {
    switch (cap1) {
    case cCylCapFlat:
      subtract3f(point, base, diff);
      project3f(diff, dir, proj);
      len_proj = (float) length3f(proj);
      dangle = dot_product3f(proj, ray) / len_proj;
      if(fabs(dangle) < kR_SMALL4)
        return 0;
      len_proj /= dangle;
      sphere[0] = base[0] + ray[0] * len_proj;
      sphere[1] = base[1] + ray[1] * len_proj;
      sphere[2] = base[2] + ray[2] * len_proj;
      if(diff3f(sphere, point) > radius)
        return 0;
      sphere[0] += dir[0] * radius;
      sphere[1] += dir[1] * radius;
      sphere[2] += dir[2] * radius;
      *asum = 0;
      break;
    case cCylCapRound:
      axial_sum = 0;
      sphere[0] = point[0];
      sphere[1] = point[1];
      sphere[2] = point[2];
      *asum = axial_sum;
      break;
    case cCylCapNone:
    default:
      return 0;
      break;
    }
  } else if(axial_sum > maxial) {
    switch (cap2) {

    case cCylCapFlat:
      scale3f(dir, maxial, fpoint);
      add3f(fpoint, point, fpoint);
      subtract3f(fpoint, base, diff);
      project3f(diff, dir, proj);
      len_proj = (float) length3f(proj);
      dangle = dot_product3f(proj, ray) / len_proj;
      if(fabs(dangle) < kR_SMALL4)
        return 0;
      len_proj /= dangle;
      sphere[0] = base[0] + ray[0] * len_proj;
      sphere[1] = base[1] + ray[1] * len_proj;
      sphere[2] = base[2] + ray[2] * len_proj;
      if(diff3f(sphere, fpoint) > radius)
        return 0;
      sphere[0] -= dir[0] * radius;
      sphere[1] -= dir[1] * radius;
      sphere[2] -= dir[2] * radius;
      *asum = maxial;
      break;
    case cCylCapRound:
      axial_sum = maxial;
      sphere[0] = dir[0] * axial_sum + point[0];
      sphere[1] = dir[1] * axial_sum + point[1];
      sphere[2] = dir[2] * axial_sum + point[2];
      *asum = axial_sum;
      break;
    case cCylCapNone:
    default:
      return 0;
      break;
    }
  } else {
    sphere[0] = dir[0] * axial_sum + point[0];
    sphere[1] = dir[1] * axial_sum + point[1];
    sphere[2] = dir[2] * axial_sum + point[2];

    *asum = axial_sum;

    /*  printf("==>%8.3f sphere %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",base[1],sphere[1],axial_perp,axial); */
  }
  return (1);
}

static int ConeLineToSphereCapped(float *base, float *ray,
                                  float *point, float *dir, float radius,
                                  float small_radius, float maxial, float *sphere,
                                  float *asum, float *sph_rad, float *sph_rad_sq,
                                  int cap1, int cap2)
{
  /* Strategy - find an imaginary sphere that lies at the correct point on
     the line segment, then treat as a sphere reflection */

  float axial_sum, dangle, ab_dangle;
  float len_proj;
  float diff[3], fpoint[3];
  float proj[3];

  {
    float perp_axis[3];
    float intra[3];
    float perp_dist;

    subtract3f(point, base, intra);
    cross_product3f(ray, dir, perp_axis);

    normalize3f(perp_axis);

    /* the perp_axis defines a perp-plane which includes the cyl-axis */

    /* get minimum distance between the lines */

    perp_dist = fabs(dot_product3f(intra, perp_axis));

    if(perp_dist > radius) {
      /* the infinite ray and the cone direction lines don't pass close
         enough to intersect within the bounding cylinder */
      return 0;
    }
  }

  dangle = dot_product3f(ray, dir);
  ab_dangle = (float) fabs(dangle);

  /* set up the cone */

  {
    double spread = (radius - small_radius) / maxial;
    float orig_axial_len = radius / spread;
    float base2orig_radial[3];
    float base2orig_normal[3];
    float base2orig_radial_len, base2orig_radial_len_sq;
    float base2orig_len, base2orig_len_sq;
    float base2orig_axial_len, base2orig_spread;
    float orig[3];
    float base2orig[3];
    float near_p[3];

    int base_inside_cone = false;
    float shift1, shift2;       /* this is what we are solving for -- 
                                   the distance along the cone axis to the point of intersection */

    scale3f(dir, orig_axial_len, orig);
    add3f(point, orig, orig);
    subtract3f(orig, base, base2orig);

    remove_component3f(base2orig, dir, base2orig_radial);

    base2orig_radial_len_sq = lengthsq3f(base2orig_radial);

    base2orig_len_sq = lengthsq3f(base2orig);

    base2orig_axial_len = sqrt1f(base2orig_len_sq - base2orig_radial_len_sq);

    base2orig_radial_len = sqrt1f(base2orig_radial_len_sq);
    base2orig_len = sqrt1f(base2orig_len_sq);

    base2orig_spread = base2orig_radial_len / base2orig_axial_len;

    base_inside_cone = (base2orig_spread < spread);

    normalize23f(base2orig, base2orig_normal);

    if(ab_dangle > kR_SMALL4) {
      float ray_extend = base2orig_axial_len / dangle;
      if(dot_product3f(base2orig_normal, dir) < 0.0)
        ray_extend = -ray_extend;

      scale3f(ray, ray_extend, near_p);
      add3f(base, near_p, near_p);

#if 0
      printf("base2orig len %8.3f extend %8.3f dangle %8.3f %8.3f ",
             base2orig_radial_len, ray_extend, dangle,
             dot_product3f(base2orig_normal, dir));
      {
        float check[3];
        subtract3f(near_p, orig, check);
        printf("check: %8.7f\n", dot_product3f(check, dir));
      }
#endif

      /* Now we punt entirely and throw the solution of this quadratic
         relationship over to Mathematica.  Surely this calculation
         could be significantly optimized... */

      {
        double partA, partB, partC;

        double dir0 = dir[0], dir1 = dir[1], dir2 = dir[2];
        double ray0 = ray[0], ray1 = ray[1], ray2 = ray[2];
        double dir0Sq = dir0 * dir0, dir1Sq = dir1 * dir1, dir2Sq = dir2 * dir2;
        double ray0Sq = ray0 * ray0, ray1Sq = ray1 * ray1, ray2Sq = ray2 * ray2;

        double cone0 = orig[0], cone1 = orig[1], cone2 = orig[2];
        double near0 = near_p[0], near1 = near_p[1], near2 = near_p[2];
        double cone0Sq = cone0 * cone0, cone1Sq = cone1 * cone1, cone2Sq = cone2 * cone2;
        double near0Sq = near0 * near0, near1Sq = near1 * near1, near2Sq = near2 * near2;

        double dAngle = ray0 * dir0 + ray1 * dir1 + ray2 * dir2;

        double spreadSq = spread * spread;
        double dAngleSq = dAngle * dAngle;

        partB = dAngleSq * (4 * pow(cone0 * dAngle * dir0 + cone1 * dAngle * dir1 +
                                    cone2 * dAngle * dir2 - dAngle * dir0 * near0 -
                                    dAngle * dir1 * near1 - dAngle * dir2 * near2 -
                                    cone0 * ray0 + near0 * ray0 - cone1 * ray1 +
                                    near1 * ray1 - cone2 * ray2 + near2 * ray2,
                                    2.0) - 4 * (cone0Sq + cone1Sq + cone2Sq -
                                                2 * cone0 * near0 + near0Sq -
                                                2 * cone1 * near1 + near1Sq -
                                                2 * cone2 * near2 + near2Sq) * (ray0Sq +
                                                                                ray1Sq -
                                                                                2 *
                                                                                dAngle *
                                                                                (dir0 *
                                                                                 ray0 +
                                                                                 dir1 *
                                                                                 ray1 +
                                                                                 dir2 *
                                                                                 ray2) +
                                                                                ray2Sq +
                                                                                dAngleSq *
                                                                                (dir0Sq +
                                                                                 dir1Sq +
                                                                                 dir2Sq -
                                                                                 spreadSq)));

        if(partB < 0.0) {       /* negative? then there are NO real solutions */
          return 0;
        } else {
          double partBroot = sqrt(partB);

          partA = -(cone0 * dAngleSq * dir0) - cone1 * dAngleSq * dir1 -
            cone2 * dAngleSq * dir2 + dAngleSq * dir0 * near0 + dAngleSq * dir1 * near1 +
            dAngleSq * dir2 * near2 + cone0 * dAngle * ray0 - dAngle * near0 * ray0 +
            cone1 * dAngle * ray1 - dAngle * near1 * ray1 + cone2 * dAngle * ray2 -
            dAngle * near2 * ray2;

          partC = (ray0Sq + ray1Sq -
                   2 * dAngle * (dir0 * ray0 + dir1 * ray1 + dir2 * ray2) + ray2Sq +
                   dAngleSq * (dir0Sq + dir1Sq + dir2Sq - spreadSq));

          shift1 = (float) ((partA + partBroot * 0.5) / partC);
          shift2 = (float) ((partA - partBroot * 0.5) / partC);
        }

#if 0
        /* prove that the solutions are valid */
        {
          float near1[3], cone1[3];
          float near2[3], cone2[3];
          float radius1 = fabs(spread * shift1);
          float radius2 = fabs(spread * shift2);

          scale3f(ray, shift1 / dangle, near1);
          add3f(near_p, near1, near1);

          scale3f(dir, shift1, cone1);
          add3f(orig, cone1, cone1);

          scale3f(ray, shift2 / dangle, near2);
          add3f(near_p, near2, near2);

          scale3f(dir, shift2, cone2);
          add3f(orig, cone2, cone2);

          {
            float diff1 = diff3f(near1, cone1);
            float diff2 = diff3f(near2, cone2);

            if(fabs(diff1 - radius1) > 0.01) {
              printf("error #1: %10.8f != %10.8f for ", diff1, radius1);
              printf("%8.3f %8.3f\n", shift1, shift2);
            }
            if(fabs(diff2 - radius2) > 0.01) {
              printf("error #2: %10.8f != %10.8f for ", diff2, radius2);
              printf("%8.3f %8.3f\n", shift1, shift2);
            }
          }
        }
#endif
      }

      {
        float axial_sum1 = orig_axial_len + shift1;
        float axial_sum2 = orig_axial_len + shift2;

        if(dangle > 0.0F) {     /* cone is narrowing in parallel with ray */
          if(shift1 < shift2) {
            axial_sum = axial_sum1;
          } else {
            axial_sum = axial_sum2;
          }
          if((axial_sum < 0.0F) || (base_inside_cone && (axial_sum < orig_axial_len))) {
            switch (cap1) {
            case cCylCapFlat:
              subtract3f(point, base, diff);
              project3f(diff, dir, proj);
              len_proj = (float) length3f(proj);
              dangle = dot_product3f(proj, ray) / len_proj;
              if(fabs(dangle) < kR_SMALL5)
                return 0;
              len_proj /= dangle;
              sphere[0] = base[0] + ray[0] * len_proj;
              sphere[1] = base[1] + ray[1] * len_proj;
              sphere[2] = base[2] + ray[2] * len_proj;
              if(diff3f(sphere, point) > radius)
                return 0;
              sphere[0] += dir[0] * radius;
              sphere[1] += dir[1] * radius;
              sphere[2] += dir[2] * radius;
              *sph_rad = radius;
              *sph_rad_sq = radius * radius;
              *asum = 0;
              return 1;
              break;
            case cCylCapNone:
            default:
              return 0;
              break;
            }
          } else if(axial_sum > maxial) {
            return 0;
          }
        } else {                /* cone is narrowing against ray */
          if(shift1 < shift2) {
            axial_sum = axial_sum2;
            if(axial_sum > orig_axial_len) {
              axial_sum = axial_sum1;
            }
          } else {
            axial_sum = axial_sum1;
            if(axial_sum > orig_axial_len) {
              axial_sum = axial_sum2;
            }
          }
          if(axial_sum < 0.0F) {
            return 0;
          } else if(axial_sum >= maxial) {
            switch (cap2) {
            case cCylCapFlat:
              scale3f(dir, maxial, fpoint);
              add3f(fpoint, point, fpoint);
              subtract3f(fpoint, base, diff);
              project3f(diff, dir, proj);
              len_proj = (float) length3f(proj);
              dangle = dot_product3f(proj, ray) / len_proj;
              if(fabs(dangle) < kR_SMALL5)
                return 0;
              len_proj /= dangle;
              sphere[0] = base[0] + ray[0] * len_proj;
              sphere[1] = base[1] + ray[1] * len_proj;
              sphere[2] = base[2] + ray[2] * len_proj;
              if(diff3f(sphere, fpoint) > small_radius)
                /* need to handle this case */
                return 0;
              sphere[0] -= dir[0] * small_radius;
              sphere[1] -= dir[1] * small_radius;
              sphere[2] -= dir[2] * small_radius;
              *sph_rad = small_radius;
              *sph_rad_sq = small_radius * small_radius;
              *asum = maxial;
              return 1;
              break;
            case cCylCapNone:
            default:
              return 0;
              break;
            }
          }
        }
      }
    } else {
      axial_sum = orig_axial_len - base2orig_axial_len;
      if((axial_sum < 0.0F) || (axial_sum > maxial))
        return 0;
    }

    /* normal hit in mid-section of the cone */

    {
      float radius_at_hit = radius - spread * axial_sum;

      float adjustment = radius_at_hit * spread;

      *asum = axial_sum;        /* color blend based on actual hit location */

      axial_sum -= adjustment;

      /*        printf(" %8.3f ",axial_sum); */

      sphere[0] = dir[0] * axial_sum + point[0];
      sphere[1] = dir[1] * axial_sum + point[1];
      sphere[2] = dir[2] * axial_sum + point[2];

      /* and provide virtual sphere radius info */

      *sph_rad_sq = (float) ((radius_at_hit * radius_at_hit) + (adjustment * adjustment));
      *sph_rad = (float) sqrt(*sph_rad_sq);
      /*        printf("%8.3f %8.3f ",*sph_rad, tan_acos_dangle); */

      /*         dump3f(sphere,"sph"); */
      return 1;
    }
  }
  return 0;
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int FrontToInteriorSphereCapped(float *front,
                                       float *point,
                                       float *dir,
                                       float radius,
                                       float radius2, float maxial, int cap1, int cap2)
{
  float intra_p[3];
  float axial;
  float intra[3], axis[3];
  float sphere[3];

  subtract3f(point, front, intra);
  remove_component3f(intra, dir, intra_p);
  add3f(front, intra_p, intra_p);
  subtract3f(point, intra_p, axis);
  axial = -dot_product3f(axis, dir);

  if(axial < 0.0F)
    return 0;
  else if(axial > maxial)
    return 0;

  sphere[0] = axial * dir[0] + point[0];
  sphere[1] = axial * dir[1] + point[1];
  sphere[2] = axial * dir[2] + point[2];

  return (diffsq3f(sphere, front) < radius2);

}


/*========================================================================*/
#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static float ZLineClipPoint(float *base, float *point, float *alongNormalSq, float cutoff)
{
  float hyp0, hyp1, hyp2;
  float result = MAXFLOAT;

  /* this routine determines whether or not a vector starting at "base"
     heading in the direction "normal" intersects a sphere located at "point".

     It returns how far along the vector the intersection with the plane is or
     MAXFLOAT if there isn't a relevant intersection

     NOTE: this routine has been optimized for normals along Z
     Optimizes-out vectors that are more than "cutoff" from "point" in x,y plane 
   */

  hyp0 = point[0] - base[0];
  if(fabs(hyp0) > cutoff)
    return result;

  hyp1 = point[1] - base[1];
  if(fabs(hyp1) > cutoff)
    return result;

  hyp2 = point[2] - base[2];

  if(hyp2 < 0.0) {
    (*alongNormalSq) = (hyp2 * hyp2);
    result = (hyp0 * hyp0) + (hyp1 * hyp1);
  }
  return result;
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static float ZLineClipPointNoZCheck(float *base, float *point, float *alongNormalSq,
                                    float cutoff)
{
  float hyp0, hyp1, hyp2;
  float result = MAXFLOAT;

  /* this routine determines whether or not a vector starting at "base"
     heading in the direction "normal" intersects a sphere located at "point".

     It returns how far along the vector the intersection with the plane is or
     MAXFLOAT if there isn't a relevant intersection

     NOTE: this routine has been optimized for normals along Z
     Optimizes-out vectors that are more than "cutoff" from "point" in x,y plane 
   */

  hyp0 = point[0] - base[0];
  if(fabs(hyp0) > cutoff)
    return result;

  hyp1 = point[1] - base[1];
  if(fabs(hyp1) > cutoff)
    return result;

  hyp2 = point[2] - base[2];

  (*alongNormalSq) = (hyp2 * hyp2);
  result = (hyp0 * hyp0) + (hyp1 * hyp1);

  return result;
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
static int LineClipPoint(float *base, float *ray,
                         float *point, float *dist, float cutoff, float cutoff2)
{
  register float hyp0, hyp1, hyp2;
  register float opp0, opp1, opp2;
  register float adj0, adj1, adj2;
  register float ray0, ray1, ray2;
  register float proj;
  register double dcutoff = (double) cutoff;
  register float opp_len_sq;

  /* this routine determines whether or not a vector starting at "base"
     heading in the direction "ray" intersects a sphere located at "point".

     It returns how far along the vector the intersection with the plane is or
     MAXFLOAT if there isn't a relevant intersection

     NOTE: this routine has been optimized for normals along Z
     Optimizes-out vectors that are more than "cutoff" from "point" 
   */

  /* compute the hypo */

  hyp2 = point[2] - base[2];
  hyp1 = point[1] - base[1];
  hyp0 = point[0] - base[0];

  ray0 = ray[0];
  ray1 = ray[1];
  ray2 = ray[2];

  /* compute the adjacent edge (dot-projection) */

  proj = (ray0 * hyp0) + (ray1 * hyp1) + (ray2 * hyp2);

  adj0 = ray0 * proj;
  adj1 = ray1 * proj;
  opp0 = hyp0 - adj0;
  adj2 = ray2 * proj;
  if(fabs(opp0) > dcutoff)
    return 0;
  opp1 = hyp1 - adj1;
  opp2 = hyp2 - adj2;
  if(fabs(opp1) > dcutoff)
    return 0;
  if(fabs(opp2) > dcutoff)
    return 0;

  opp_len_sq = (opp0 * opp0) + (opp1 * opp1) + (opp2 * opp2);

  if(opp_len_sq <= cutoff2) {
    *dist = proj - (float) sqrt1f(cutoff2 - opp_len_sq);
    return 1;
  }

  return 0;
}

static int LineClipEllipsoidPoint(float *base, float *ray,
                                  float *point, float *dist,
                                  float cutoff, float cutoff2,
                                  float *scale, float *n1, float *n2, float *n3)
{
  float point_to_base[3];
  float scaled_base[3];
  float scaled_ray[3];
  float d1, d2, d3, s1, s2, s3;
  float comp1[3], comp2[3], comp3[3];

  subtract3f(base, point, point_to_base);

  /* project difference vector onto ellipsoid axes */

  d1 = dot_product3f(point_to_base, n1);
  d2 = dot_product3f(point_to_base, n2);
  d3 = dot_product3f(point_to_base, n3);

  s1 = d1 / scale[0];
  s2 = d2 / scale[1];
  s3 = d3 / scale[2];

  scale3f(n1, s1, comp1);
  scale3f(n2, s2, comp2);
  scale3f(n3, s3, comp3);

  copy3f(point, scaled_base);
  add3f(comp1, scaled_base, scaled_base);
  add3f(comp2, scaled_base, scaled_base);
  add3f(comp3, scaled_base, scaled_base);

  d1 = dot_product3f(ray, n1);
  d2 = dot_product3f(ray, n2);
  d3 = dot_product3f(ray, n3);

  s1 = d1 / scale[0];
  s2 = d2 / scale[1];
  s3 = d3 / scale[2];

  scale3f(n1, s1, comp1);
  scale3f(n2, s2, comp2);
  scale3f(n3, s3, comp3);

  copy3f(comp1, scaled_ray);
  add3f(comp2, scaled_ray, scaled_ray);
  add3f(comp3, scaled_ray, scaled_ray);

  d1 = length3f(scaled_ray);

  normalize3f(scaled_ray);

  /*  dump3f(ray,"ray");
     dump3f(scaled_ray,"scaled_ray");
   */

  {
    register float hyp0, hyp1, hyp2;
    register float opp0, opp1, opp2;
    register float adj0, adj1, adj2;
    register float ray0, ray1, ray2;
    register float proj;
    register double dcutoff = (double) cutoff;
    register float opp_len_sq;

    /* this routine determines whether or not a vector starting at "base"
       heading in the direction "ray" intersects a sphere located at "point".

       It returns how far along the vector the intersection with the plane is or
       MAXFLOAT if there isn't a relevant intersection

     */

    /* compute the hypo */

    hyp2 = point[2] - scaled_base[2];
    hyp1 = point[1] - scaled_base[1];
    hyp0 = point[0] - scaled_base[0];

    ray0 = scaled_ray[0];
    ray1 = scaled_ray[1];
    ray2 = scaled_ray[2];

    /* compute the adjacent edge (dot-projection) */

    proj = (ray0 * hyp0) + (ray1 * hyp1) + (ray2 * hyp2);

    adj0 = ray0 * proj;
    adj1 = ray1 * proj;
    opp0 = hyp0 - adj0;
    adj2 = ray2 * proj;
    if(fabs(opp0) > dcutoff)
      return 0;
    opp1 = hyp1 - adj1;
    opp2 = hyp2 - adj2;
    if(fabs(opp1) > dcutoff)
      return 0;
    if(fabs(opp2) > dcutoff)
      return 0;

    opp_len_sq = (opp0 * opp0) + (opp1 * opp1) + (opp2 * opp2);

    if(opp_len_sq <= cutoff2) { /* line hits the virtual sphere */

      float scaled_dist = proj - (float) sqrt1f(cutoff2 - opp_len_sq);

      *(dist) = scaled_dist / d1;

      return 1;
    }

    return 0;
  }
}


/*========================================================================*/
void BasisSetupMatrix(CBasis * I)
{
  float oldZ[3] = { 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 };
  float newY[3];
  float dotgle, angle;

  cross_product3f(oldZ, I->LightNormal, newY);

  dotgle = dot_product3f(oldZ, I->LightNormal);

  if((1.0 - fabs(dotgle)) < kR_SMALL4) {
    dotgle = (float) (dotgle / fabs(dotgle));
    newY[0] = 0.0;
    newY[1] = 1.0;
    newY[2] = 0.0;
  }

  normalize3f(newY);

  angle = (float) (-acos(dotgle));

  /* now all we gotta do is effect a rotation about the new Y axis to line up new Z with Z */

  rotation_to_matrix33f(newY, angle, I->Matrix);

  /*
     printf("%8.3f %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",angle*180.0/cPI,newY[0],newY[1],newY[2]);

     matrix_transform33f3f(I->Matrix,newY,test);
     printf("   %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",test[0],test[1],test[2]);

     printf("   %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",I->LightNormal[0],I->LightNormal[1],I->LightNormal[2]);
     matrix_transform33f3f(I->Matrix,I->LightNormal,test);
     printf("   %8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",test[0],test[1],test[2]);

     printf(">%8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",I->Matrix[0][0],I->Matrix[0][1],I->Matrix[0][2]);
     printf(">%8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",I->Matrix[1][0],I->Matrix[1][1],I->Matrix[1][2]);
     printf(">%8.3f %8.3f %8.3f\n",I->Matrix[2][0],I->Matrix[2][1],I->Matrix[2][2]);
   */
}


/*========================================================================*/
void BasisGetTriangleFlatDotgle(CBasis * I, RayInfo * r, int i)
{
  float *n0 = I->Normal + (3 * I->Vert2Normal[i]);
  r->flat_dotgle = n0[2];
}

void BasisGetTriangleFlatDotglePerspective(CBasis * I, RayInfo * r, int i)
{
  float *n0 = I->Normal + (3 * I->Vert2Normal[i]);
  r->flat_dotgle = -dot_product3f(r->dir, n0);
}


/*========================================================================*/
void BasisGetEllipsoidNormal(CBasis * I, RayInfo * r, int i, int perspective)
{
  if(perspective) {
    r->impact[0] = r->base[0] + r->dir[0] * r->dist;
    r->impact[1] = r->base[1] + r->dir[1] * r->dist;
    r->impact[2] = r->base[2] + r->dir[2] * r->dist;
  } else {
    r->impact[0] = r->base[0];
    r->impact[1] = r->base[1];
    r->impact[2] = r->base[2] - r->dist;
  }

  {
    float *n1 = I->Normal + (3 * I->Vert2Normal[i]);
    float *n2 = n1 + 3, *n3 = n1 + 6;
    float *scale = r->prim->n0;
    float d1, d2, d3, s1, s2, s3;
    float comp1[3], comp2[3], comp3[3];
    float direct[3], surfnormal[3];

    direct[0] = r->impact[0] - r->sphere[0];
    direct[1] = r->impact[1] - r->sphere[1];
    direct[2] = r->impact[2] - r->sphere[2];

    normalize3f(direct);

    d1 = dot_product3f(direct, n1);
    d2 = dot_product3f(direct, n2);
    d3 = dot_product3f(direct, n3);

    if(scale[0] > R_SMALL8) {
      s1 = d1 / (scale[0] * scale[0]);
    } else {
      s1 = 0.0F;
    }
    if(scale[1] > R_SMALL8) {
      s2 = d2 / (scale[1] * scale[1]);
    } else {
      s2 = 0.0F;
    }
    if(scale[2] > R_SMALL8) {
      s3 = d3 / (scale[2] * scale[2]);
    } else {
      s3 = 0.0F;
    }

    scale3f(n1, s1, comp1);
    scale3f(n2, s2, comp2);
    scale3f(n3, s3, comp3);

    copy3f(comp1, surfnormal);
    add3f(comp2, surfnormal, surfnormal);
    add3f(comp3, surfnormal, surfnormal);

    normalize23f(surfnormal, r->surfnormal);
  }
}

void BasisGetTriangleNormal(CBasis * I, RayInfo * r, int i, float *fc, int perspective)
{
  float *n0, w2, fc0, fc1, fc2;
  float vt1[3];
  CPrimitive *lprim = r->prim;

  if(perspective) {
    r->impact[0] = r->base[0] + r->dir[0] * r->dist;
    r->impact[1] = r->base[1] + r->dir[1] * r->dist;
    r->impact[2] = r->base[2] + r->dir[2] * r->dist;
  } else {
    r->impact[0] = r->base[0];
    r->impact[1] = r->base[1];
    r->impact[2] = r->base[2] - r->dist;
  }

  n0 = I->Normal + (3 * I->Vert2Normal[i]) + 3; /* skip triangle normal */
  w2 = 1.0F - (r->tri1 + r->tri2);
  /*  printf("%8.3f %8.3f\n",r->tri[1],r->tri[2]); */

  fc0 = (lprim->c2[0] * r->tri1) + (lprim->c3[0] * r->tri2) + (lprim->c1[0] * w2);
  fc1 = (lprim->c2[1] * r->tri1) + (lprim->c3[1] * r->tri2) + (lprim->c1[1] * w2);
  fc2 = (lprim->c2[2] * r->tri1) + (lprim->c3[2] * r->tri2) + (lprim->c1[2] * w2);

  r->trans = (lprim->tr[1] * r->tri1) + (lprim->tr[2] * r->tri2) + (lprim->tr[0] * w2);

  scale3f(n0 + 3, r->tri1, r->surfnormal);
  scale3f(n0 + 6, r->tri2, vt1);
  add3f(vt1, r->surfnormal, r->surfnormal);

  scale3f(n0, w2, vt1);
  add3f(vt1, r->surfnormal, r->surfnormal);

  normalize3f(r->surfnormal);

  fc[0] = fc0;
  fc[1] = fc1;
  fc[2] = fc2;
}


/*========================================================================*/

#ifdef PROFILE_BASIS
int n_cells = 0;
int n_prims = 0;
int n_triangles = 0;
int n_spheres = 0;
int n_cylinders = 0;
int n_sausages = 0;
int n_skipped = 0;
#endif

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
int BasisHitPerspective(BasisCallRec * BC)
{
  CBasis *BI = BC->Basis;
  MapType *map = BI->Map;
  int iMin0 = map->iMin[0];
  int iMin1 = map->iMin[1];
  int iMin2 = map->iMin[2];
  int iMax0 = map->iMax[0];
  int iMax1 = map->iMax[1];
  int iMax2 = map->iMax[2];
  int a, b, c;

  float iDiv = map->recipDiv;
  float base0, base1, base2;

  float min0 = map->Min[0] * iDiv;
  float min1 = map->Min[1] * iDiv;
  float min2 = map->Min[2] * iDiv;

  int new_ray = !BC->pass;
  RayInfo *r = BC->rr;

  MapCache *cache = &BC->cache;
  int *cache_cache = cache->Cache;
  int *cache_CacheLink = cache->CacheLink;

  CPrimitive *r_prim = NULL;

  if(new_ray) {                 /* see if we can eliminate this ray right away using the mask */

    base0 = (r->base[0] * iDiv) - min0;
    base1 = (r->base[1] * iDiv) - min1;

    a = (int) base0;
    b = (int) base1;
    a += MapBorder;
    b += MapBorder;
    if(a < iMin0)
      a = iMin0;
    else if(a > iMax0)
      a = iMax0;
    if(b < iMin1)
      b = iMin1;
    else if(b > iMax1)
      b = iMax1;

    if(!*(map->EMask + a * map->Dim[1] + b))
      return -1;
  }

  {
    int last_a = -1, last_b = -1, last_c = -1;
    int allow_break;
    int minIndex = -1;

    float step0, step1, step2;
    float back_dist = BC->back_dist;

    const float _0 = 0.0F, _1 = 1.0F;
    float r_tri1 = _0, r_tri2 = _0, r_dist, dist;       /* zero inits to suppress compiler warnings */
    float r_sphere0 = _0, r_sphere1 = _0, r_sphere2 = _0;
    int h, *ip;
    int excl_trans_flag;
    int *elist, local_iflag = false;
    int terminal = -1;
    int *ehead = map->EHead;
    int d1d2 = map->D1D2;
    int d2 = map->Dim[2];
    const int *vert2prim = BC->vert2prim;
    const float excl_trans = BC->excl_trans;
    const float BasisFudge0 = BC->fudge0;
    const float BasisFudge1 = BC->fudge1;
    int v2p;
    int i, ii;
    int n_vert = BI->NVertex, n_eElem = map->NEElem;
    int except1 = BC->except1;
    int except2 = BC->except2;
    int check_interior_flag = BC->check_interior && !BC->pass;
    float sph[3], vt[3], tri1 = _0, tri2;
    CPrimitive *BC_prim = BC->prim;
    int *BI_Vert2Normal = BI->Vert2Normal;
    float *BI_Vertex = BI->Vertex;
    float *BI_Precomp = BI->Precomp;
    float *BI_Normal = BI->Normal;
    float *BI_Radius = BI->Radius;
    float *BI_Radius2 = BI->Radius2;
    copy3f(r->base, vt);

    elist = map->EList;

    r_dist = MAXFLOAT;

    excl_trans_flag = (excl_trans != _0);

    if(except1 >= 0)
      except1 = vert2prim[except1];
    if(except2 >= 0)
      except2 = vert2prim[except2];

    MapCacheReset(cache);

    {                           /* take steps with a Z-size equil to the grid spacing */
      float div = iDiv * (-MapGetDiv(BI->Map) / r->dir[2]);
      step0 = r->dir[0] * div;
      step1 = r->dir[1] * div;
      step2 = r->dir[2] * div;
    }

    base0 = (r->skip[0] * iDiv) - min0;
    base1 = (r->skip[1] * iDiv) - min1;
    base2 = (r->skip[2] * iDiv) - min2;

    allow_break = false;
    while(1) {
      int inside_code;
      int clamped;

      a = ((int) base0);
      b = ((int) base1);
      c = ((int) base2);

      inside_code = 1;
      clamped = false;

      a += MapBorder;
      b += MapBorder;
      c += MapBorder;
#define EDGE_ALLOWANCE 1

      if(a < iMin0) {
        if(((iMin0 - a) > EDGE_ALLOWANCE) && allow_break)
          break;
        else {
          a = iMin0;
          clamped = true;
        }
      } else if(a > iMax0) {
        if(((a - iMax0) > EDGE_ALLOWANCE) && allow_break)
          break;
        else {
          a = iMax0;
          clamped = true;
        }
      }
      if(b < iMin1) {
        if(((iMin1 - b) > EDGE_ALLOWANCE) && allow_break)
          break;
        else {
          b = iMin1;
          clamped = true;
        }
      } else if(b > iMax1) {
        if(((b - iMax1) > EDGE_ALLOWANCE) && allow_break)
          break;
        else {
          b = iMax1;
          clamped = true;
        }
      }
      if(c < iMin2) {
        if((iMin2 - c) > EDGE_ALLOWANCE)
          break;
        else {
          c = iMin2;
          clamped = true;
        }
      } else if(c > iMax2) {
        if((c - iMax2) > EDGE_ALLOWANCE)
          inside_code = 0;
        else {
          c = iMax2;
          clamped = true;
        }
      }
      if(inside_code && (((a != last_a) || (b != last_b) || (c != last_c)))) {
        int new_min_index;
        h = *(ehead + (d1d2 * a) + (d2 * b) + c);

        new_min_index = -1;

        if(!clamped)            /* don't discard a ray until it has hit the objective at least once */
          allow_break = true;

        if((terminal > 0) && (last_c != c)) {
          if(!terminal--)
            break;
        }
        if((h > 0) && (h < n_eElem)) {
          int do_loop;

          ip = elist + h;
          last_a = a;
          i = *(ip++);
          last_b = b;
          do_loop = ((i >= 0) && (i < n_vert));
          last_c = c;

          while(do_loop) {      /* n_vert checking is a bug workaround */
            CPrimitive *prm;
            v2p = vert2prim[i];
            ii = *(ip++);
            prm = BC_prim + v2p;
            do_loop = ((ii >= 0) && (ii < n_vert));
            /*            if((v2p != except1) && (v2p != except2) && (!MapCached(cache, v2p))) { */
            if((v2p != except1) && (v2p != except2) && (!cache_cache[v2p])) {
              int prm_type = prm->type;

              /*MapCache(cache,v2p); */
              cache_cache[v2p] = 1;
              cache_CacheLink[v2p] = cache->CacheStart;
              cache->CacheStart = v2p;

              switch (prm_type) {
              case cPrimTriangle:
              case cPrimCharacter:
                {
                  float *dir = r->dir;
                  float *d10 = BI_Precomp + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3;
                  float *d20 = d10 + 3;
                  float *v0;
                  register float det, inv_det;
                  register float pvec0, pvec1, pvec2;
                  register float dir0 = dir[0], dir1 = dir[1], dir2 = dir[2];
                  register float d20_0 = d20[0], d20_1 = d20[1], d20_2 = d20[2];
                  register float d10_0 = d10[0], d10_1 = d10[1], d10_2 = d10[2];

                  /* cross_product3f(dir, d20, pvec); */

                  pvec0 = dir1 * d20_2 - dir2 * d20_1;
                  pvec1 = dir2 * d20_0 - dir0 * d20_2;
                  pvec2 = dir0 * d20_1 - dir1 * d20_0;

                  /* det = dot_product3f(pvec, d10); */

                  det = pvec0 * d10_0 + pvec1 * d10_1 + pvec2 * d10_2;

                  v0 = BI_Vertex + prm->vert * 3;
                  if((det >= EPSILON) || (det <= -EPSILON)) {
                    register float tvec0, tvec1, tvec2;
                    register float qvec0, qvec1, qvec2;

                    inv_det = _1 / det;

                    /* subtract3f(vt,v0,tvec); */

                    tvec0 = vt[0] - v0[0];
                    tvec1 = vt[1] - v0[1];
                    tvec2 = vt[2] - v0[2];

                    /* dot_product3f(tvec,pvec) * inv_det; */
                    tri1 = (tvec0 * pvec0 + tvec1 * pvec1 + tvec2 * pvec2) * inv_det;

                    /* cross_product3f(tvec,d10,qvec); */

                    qvec0 = tvec1 * d10_2 - tvec2 * d10_1;
                    qvec1 = tvec2 * d10_0 - tvec0 * d10_2;

                    if((tri1 >= BasisFudge0) && (tri1 <= BasisFudge1)) {
                      qvec2 = tvec0 * d10_1 - tvec1 * d10_0;

                      /* dot_product3f(dir, qvec) * inv_det; */
                      tri2 = (dir0 * qvec0 + dir1 * qvec1 + dir2 * qvec2) * inv_det;

                      /* dot_product3f(d20, qvec) * inv_det; */
                      dist = (d20_0 * qvec0 + d20_1 * qvec1 + d20_2 * qvec2) * inv_det;

                      if((tri2 >= BasisFudge0) && (tri2 <= BasisFudge1)
                         && ((tri1 + tri2) <= BasisFudge1)) {
                        if((dist < r_dist) && (dist >= _0) && (dist <= back_dist)
                           && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                          new_min_index = prm->vert;
                          r_tri1 = tri1;
                          r_tri2 = tri2;
                          r_dist = dist;
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
                break;
              case cPrimSphere:
                {
                  if(LineClipPoint(r->base, r->dir,
                                   BI_Vertex + i * 3, &dist,
                                   BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i])) {
                    if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                      if((dist >= _0) && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                        new_min_index = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                      } else if(check_interior_flag && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                        if(diffsq3f(vt, BI_Vertex + i * 3) < BI_Radius2[i]) {

                          local_iflag = true;
                          r_prim = prm;
                          r_dist = _0;
                          new_min_index = prm->vert;
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
                break;
              case cPrimEllipsoid:
                {
                  if(LineClipPoint(r->base, r->dir,
                                   BI_Vertex + i * 3, &dist,
                                   BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i])) {
                    if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                      float *n1 = BI_Normal + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3;
                      if(LineClipEllipsoidPoint(r->base, r->dir,
                                                BI_Vertex + i * 3, &dist,
                                                BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i],
                                                prm->n0, n1, n1 + 3, n1 + 6)) {
                        if(dist < r_dist) {
                          if((dist >= _0) && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                            new_min_index = prm->vert;
                            r_dist = dist;
                          } else if(check_interior_flag && (dist <= back_dist)) {
#if 0
                            if(diffsq3f(vt, BI_Vertex + i * 3) < BI_Radius2[i]) {
                              /* TO FIX */
                              local_iflag = true;
                              r_prim = prm;
                              r_dist = _0;
                              new_min_index = prm->vert;
                            }
#endif
                          }
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
                break;

              case cPrimCylinder:
                if(LineToSphereCapped(r->base, r->dir, BI_Vertex + i * 3,
                                      BI_Normal + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                      BI_Radius[i], prm->l1, sph, &tri1,
                                      prm->cap1, prm->cap2)) {
                  if(LineClipPoint
                     (r->base, r->dir, sph, &dist, BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i])) {
                    if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                      if((dist >= _0) && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                        if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                          r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;

                        r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                        r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                        r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                        new_min_index = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                      } else if(check_interior_flag && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                        if(FrontToInteriorSphereCapped(vt,
                                                       BI_Vertex + i * 3,
                                                       BI_Normal + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                                       BI_Radius[i],
                                                       BI_Radius2[i],
                                                       prm->l1, prm->cap1, prm->cap2)) {
                          local_iflag = true;
                          r_prim = prm;
                          r_dist = _0;

                          new_min_index = prm->vert;
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
                break;
              case cPrimCone:
                {
                  float sph_rad, sph_rad_sq;
                  if(ConeLineToSphereCapped(r->base, r->dir, BI_Vertex + i * 3,
                                            BI_Normal + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                            BI_Radius[i], prm->r2, prm->l1, sph, &tri1,
                                            &sph_rad, &sph_rad_sq,
                                            prm->cap1, prm->cap2)) {

                    if(LineClipPoint(r->base, r->dir, sph, &dist, sph_rad, sph_rad_sq)) {
                      if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                        if((dist >= _0) && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                          if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                            r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;    /* color blending */
                          r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                          r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                          r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                          new_min_index = prm->vert;
                          r_dist = dist;
                        } else if(check_interior_flag && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                          if(FrontToInteriorSphereCapped(vt,
                                                         BI_Vertex + i * 3,
                                                         BI_Normal +
                                                         BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                                         BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i],
                                                         prm->l1, prm->cap1, prm->cap2)) {
                            local_iflag = true;
                            r_prim = prm;
                            r_dist = _0;
                            new_min_index = prm->vert;
                          }
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
                break;
              case cPrimSausage:
                if(LineToSphere(r->base, r->dir,
                                BI_Vertex + i * 3, BI_Normal + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                BI_Radius[i], prm->l1, sph, &tri1)) {

                  if(LineClipPoint
                     (r->base, r->dir, sph, &dist, BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i])) {

                    int tmp_flag = false;
                    if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                      if((dist >= _0) && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                        tmp_flag = true;
                        if(excl_trans_flag) {
                          if((prm->trans > _0) && (dist < excl_trans))
                            tmp_flag = false;
                        }
                        if(tmp_flag) {

                          if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                            r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;

                          r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                          r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                          r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                          new_min_index = prm->vert;
                          r_dist = dist;

                        }
                      } else if(check_interior_flag && (dist <= back_dist)) {
                        if(FrontToInteriorSphere(vt, BI_Vertex + i * 3,
                                                 BI_Normal + BI_Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                                 BI_Radius[i], BI_Radius2[i], prm->l1)) {
                          local_iflag = true;
                          r_prim = prm;
                          r_dist = _0;
                          new_min_index = prm->vert;
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
                break;
              }                 /* end of switch */
            }
            /* end of if */
            i = ii;

          }                     /* end of while */

          if(local_iflag) {
            r->prim = r_prim;
            r->dist = r_dist;

            break;
          }

          if(new_min_index > -1) {

            minIndex = new_min_index;

            r_prim = BC_prim + vert2prim[minIndex];

            if((r_prim->type == cPrimSphere) || (r_prim->type == cPrimEllipsoid)) {
              const float *vv = BI->Vertex + minIndex * 3;
              r_sphere0 = vv[0];
              r_sphere1 = vv[1];
              r_sphere2 = vv[2];
            }

            BC->interior_flag = local_iflag;
            r->tri1 = r_tri1;
            r->tri2 = r_tri2;
            r->prim = r_prim;
            r->dist = r_dist;
            r->sphere[0] = r_sphere0;
            r->sphere[1] = r_sphere1;
            r->sphere[2] = r_sphere2;
          }
        }                       /* if -- h valid */
      }
      /* end of if */
      if(minIndex > -1) {
        if(terminal < 0)
          terminal = EDGE_ALLOWANCE + 1;
      }

      base0 += step0;
      base1 += step1;
      base2 += step2;
      /* advance through the map one block at a time -- note that this is a crappy way to walk through the map... */
    }

    BC->interior_flag = local_iflag;
    return (minIndex);
  }
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
int BasisHitOrthoscopic(BasisCallRec * BC)
{
  const float _0 = 0.0F, _1 = 1.0F;
  float oppSq, dist = _0, sph[3], vt[3], tri1, tri2;
  int a, b, c, h, *ip;
  int excl_trans_flag;
  int check_interior_flag;
  int *elist, local_iflag = false;
  float minusZ[3] = { 0.0F, 0.0F, -1.0F };

  CBasis *BI = BC->Basis;
  RayInfo *r = BC->rr;

  if(MapInsideXY(BI->Map, r->base, &a, &b, &c)) {
    register int minIndex = -1;
    int v2p;
    int i, ii;
    int *xxtmp;
    int do_loop;
    int except1 = BC->except1;
    int except2 = BC->except2;
    int n_vert = BI->NVertex, n_eElem = BI->Map->NEElem;
    const int *vert2prim = BC->vert2prim;
    const float front = BC->front;
    const float back = BC->back;
    const float excl_trans = BC->excl_trans;
    const float BasisFudge0 = BC->fudge0;
    const float BasisFudge1 = BC->fudge1;

    MapCache *cache = &BC->cache;

    float r_tri1 = _0, r_tri2 = _0, r_dist = _0;        /* zero inits to suppress compiler warnings */
    float r_sphere0 = _0, r_sphere1 = _0, r_sphere2 = _0;
    CPrimitive *r_prim = NULL;

    check_interior_flag = BC->check_interior && (!BC->pass);

    /* assumption: always heading in the negative Z direction with our vector... */
    vt[0] = r->base[0];
    vt[1] = r->base[1];
    vt[2] = r->base[2] - front;

    if(except1 >= 0)
      except1 = vert2prim[except1];
    if(except2 >= 0)
      except2 = vert2prim[except2];

    excl_trans_flag = (excl_trans != _0);

    r_dist = MAXFLOAT;

    xxtmp = BI->Map->EHead + (a * BI->Map->D1D2) + (b * BI->Map->Dim[2]) + c;

    MapCacheReset(cache);

    elist = BI->Map->EList;

    while(c >= MapBorder) {
      h = *xxtmp;
      if((h > 0) && (h < n_eElem)) {
        ip = elist + h;
        i = *(ip++);
        do_loop = ((i >= 0) && (i < n_vert));
        while(do_loop) {
          ii = *(ip++);
          v2p = vert2prim[i];
          do_loop = ((ii >= 0) && (ii < n_vert));

          if((v2p != except1) && (v2p != except2) && (!MapCached(cache, v2p))) {
            CPrimitive *prm = BC->prim + v2p;
            MapCache(cache, v2p);

            switch (prm->type) {
            case cPrimTriangle:
            case cPrimCharacter:
              if(!prm->cull) {
                float *pre = BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3;

                if(pre[6]) {
                  float *vert0 = BI->Vertex + prm->vert * 3;

                  float tvec0 = vt[0] - vert0[0];
                  float tvec1 = vt[1] - vert0[1];

                  tri1 = (tvec0 * pre[4] - tvec1 * pre[3]) * pre[7];
                  tri2 = -(tvec0 * pre[1] - tvec1 * pre[0]) * pre[7];

                  if(!((tri1 < BasisFudge0) || (tri2 < BasisFudge0) ||
                       (tri1 > BasisFudge1) || ((tri1 + tri2) > BasisFudge1))) {
                    dist = (r->base[2] - (tri1 * pre[2]) - (tri2 * pre[5]) - vert0[2]);

                    if((dist < r_dist) && (dist >= front) &&
                       (dist <= back) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                      minIndex = prm->vert;
                      r_tri1 = tri1;
                      r_tri2 = tri2;
                      r_dist = dist;
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;

            case cPrimSphere:
              oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
              if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                  if((dist >= front) && (dist <= back)) {
                    minIndex = prm->vert;
                    r_dist = dist;
                  } else if(check_interior_flag) {
                    if(diffsq3f(vt, BI->Vertex + i * 3) < BI->Radius2[i]) {
                      local_iflag = true;
                      r_prim = prm;
                      r_dist = front;
                      minIndex = prm->vert;
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            case cPrimEllipsoid:
              oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
              if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {

                dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                  float *n1 = BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3;
                  if(LineClipEllipsoidPoint(r->base, minusZ,
                                            BI->Vertex + i * 3, &dist,
                                            BI->Radius[i], BI->Radius2[i],
                                            prm->n0, n1, n1 + 3, n1 + 6)) {
                    if(dist < r_dist) {
                      if((dist >= _0) && (dist <= back)) {
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                      } else if(check_interior_flag) {
#if 0
                        /* TODO TO FIX */
                        if(diffsq3f(vt, BI->Vertex + i * 3) < BI->Radius2[i]) {
                          local_iflag = true;
                          r_prim = prm;
                          r_dist = front;
                          minIndex = prm->vert;
                        }
#endif
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;

            case cPrimCylinder:
              if(ZLineToSphereCapped(r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3,
                                     BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                     BI->Radius[i], prm->l1, sph, &tri1, prm->cap1,
                                     prm->cap2, BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3)) {
                oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, sph, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
                if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                  dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                  if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                    if((dist >= front) && (dist <= back)) {
                      if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                        r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;

                      r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                      r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                      r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                      minIndex = prm->vert;
                      r_dist = dist;
                    } else if(check_interior_flag) {
                      if(FrontToInteriorSphereCapped(vt,
                                                     BI->Vertex + i * 3,
                                                     BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                                     BI->Radius[i],
                                                     BI->Radius2[i],
                                                     prm->l1, prm->cap1, prm->cap2)) {
                        local_iflag = true;
                        r_prim = prm;
                        r_dist = front;
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            case cPrimCone:
              {
                float sph_rad, sph_rad_sq;
                if(ConeLineToSphereCapped(r->base, minusZ, BI->Vertex + i * 3,
                                          BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                          BI->Radius[i], prm->r2, prm->l1, sph, &tri1,
                                          &sph_rad, &sph_rad_sq, prm->cap1, prm->cap2)) {

                  oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, sph, &dist, sph_rad);
                  if(oppSq <= sph_rad_sq) {
                    dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((sph_rad_sq - oppSq)));

                    if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                      if((dist >= front) && (dist <= back)) {
                        if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                          r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;

                        r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                        r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                        r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                      } else if(check_interior_flag) {
                        if(FrontToInteriorSphereCapped(vt,
                                                       BI->Vertex + i * 3,
                                                       BI->Normal +
                                                       BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3, sph_rad,
                                                       sph_rad_sq, prm->l1, prm->cap1,
                                                       prm->cap2)) {
                          local_iflag = true;
                          r_prim = prm;
                          r_dist = front;
                          minIndex = prm->vert;
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            case cPrimSausage:
              if(ZLineToSphere
                 (r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3, BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                  BI->Radius[i], prm->l1, sph, &tri1,
                  BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3)) {
                oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, sph, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
                if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                  int tmp_flag = false;

                  dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));
                  if((dist < r_dist) && (prm->trans != _1)) {
                    if((dist >= front) && (dist <= back)) {
                      tmp_flag = true;
                      if(excl_trans_flag) {
                        if((prm->trans > _0) && (dist < excl_trans))
                          tmp_flag = false;
                      }
                      if(tmp_flag) {
                        if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                          r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;

                        r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                        r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                        r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                      }
                    } else if(check_interior_flag) {
                      if(FrontToInteriorSphere
                         (vt, BI->Vertex + i * 3, BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                          BI->Radius[i], BI->Radius2[i], prm->l1)) {
                        local_iflag = true;
                        r_prim = prm;
                        r_dist = front;
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            }                   /* end of switch */
          }
          /* end of if */
          i = ii;

        }                       /* end of while */
      }

      /* and of course stop when we hit the edge of the map */

      if(local_iflag)
        break;

      /* we've processed all primitives associated with this voxel, 
         so if an intersection has been found which occurs in front of
         the next voxel, then we can stop */

      if(minIndex > -1) {
        int aa, bb, cc;

        vt[2] = r->base[2] - r_dist;
        MapLocus(BI->Map, vt, &aa, &bb, &cc);
        if(cc > c)
          break;
        else
          vt[2] = r->base[2] - front;
      }

      c--;
      xxtmp--;

    }                           /* end of while */

    if(minIndex > -1) {
      r_prim = BC->prim + vert2prim[minIndex];

      if((r_prim->type == cPrimSphere) || (r_prim->type == cPrimEllipsoid)) {
        const float *vv = BI->Vertex + minIndex * 3;
        r_sphere0 = vv[0];
        r_sphere1 = vv[1];
        r_sphere2 = vv[2];
      }
    }

    BC->interior_flag = local_iflag;
    r->tri1 = r_tri1;
    r->tri2 = r_tri2;
    r->prim = r_prim;
    r->dist = r_dist;
    r->sphere[0] = r_sphere0;
    r->sphere[1] = r_sphere1;
    r->sphere[2] = r_sphere2;
    return (minIndex);
  }                             /* end of if */
  BC->interior_flag = local_iflag;
  return (-1);
}

#ifdef _PYMOL_INLINE
__inline__
#endif
int BasisHitShadow(BasisCallRec * BC)
{
  const float _0 = 0.0F;
  const float _1 = 1.0F;
  float oppSq, dist = _0, tri1, tri2;
  float sph[3], vt[3];
  register int h, *ip;
  int a, b, c;
  int excl_trans_flag;
  int check_interior_flag;
  int *elist, local_iflag = false;
  float minusZ[3] = { 0.0F, 0.0F, -1.0F };
  /* local copies (eliminate these extra copies later on) */

  CBasis *BI = BC->Basis;
  RayInfo *r = BC->rr;

  if(MapInsideXY(BI->Map, r->base, &a, &b, &c)) {
    register int minIndex = -1;
    register int v2p;
    register int i, ii;
    int *xxtmp;

    int n_vert = BI->NVertex, n_eElem = BI->Map->NEElem;
    register int except1 = BC->except1;
    register int except2 = BC->except2;
    const int *vert2prim = BC->vert2prim;
    const int trans_shadows = BC->trans_shadows;
    const int nearest_shadow = BC->nearest_shadow;
    const float excl_trans = BC->excl_trans;
    const float BasisFudge0 = BC->fudge0;
    const float BasisFudge1 = BC->fudge1;
    const int label_shadow_mode = BC->label_shadow_mode;
    register MapCache *cache = &BC->cache;
    int *cache_cache = cache->Cache;
    int *cache_CacheLink = cache->CacheLink;
    register CPrimitive *BC_prim = BC->prim;

    register float r_tri1 = _0, r_tri2 = _0, r_dist;    /* zero inits to suppress compiler warnings */
    register float r_sphere0 = _0, r_sphere1 = _0, r_sphere2 = _0;
    register float r_trans = _0;
    CPrimitive *r_prim = NULL;

    check_interior_flag = BC->check_interior;

    /* assumption: always heading in the negative Z direction with our vector... */
    vt[0] = r->base[0];
    vt[1] = r->base[1];

    if(except1 >= 0)
      except1 = vert2prim[except1];
    if(except2 >= 0)
      except2 = vert2prim[except2];

    excl_trans_flag = (excl_trans != _0);

    r_trans = _1;
    r_dist = MAXFLOAT;

    xxtmp = BI->Map->EHead + (a * BI->Map->D1D2) + (b * BI->Map->Dim[2]) + c;

    MapCacheReset(cache);

    elist = BI->Map->EList;

    while(c >= MapBorder) {
      h = *xxtmp;
      if((h > 0) && (h < n_eElem)) {
        int do_loop;
        ip = elist + h;
        i = *(ip++);
        do_loop = ((i >= 0) && (i < n_vert));
        while(do_loop) {
          ii = *(ip++);
          v2p = vert2prim[i];
          do_loop = ((ii >= 0) && (ii < n_vert));
          if((v2p != except1) && (v2p != except2) && !MapCached(cache, v2p)) {
            register CPrimitive *prm = BC_prim + v2p;
            int prm_type;

            /*MapCache(cache,v2p); */
            cache_cache[v2p] = 1;
            prm_type = prm->type;
            cache_CacheLink[v2p] = cache->CacheStart;
            cache->CacheStart = v2p;

            switch (prm_type) {
            case cPrimCharacter:       /* will need special handling for character shadows */
              if(label_shadow_mode & 0x2) {     /* if labels case shadows... */
                float *pre = BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3;

                if(pre[6]) {
                  float *vert0 = BI->Vertex + prm->vert * 3;

                  float tvec0 = vt[0] - vert0[0];
                  float tvec1 = vt[1] - vert0[1];

                  tri1 = (tvec0 * pre[4] - tvec1 * pre[3]) * pre[7];
                  tri2 = -(tvec0 * pre[1] - tvec1 * pre[0]) * pre[7];

                  if(!((tri1 < BasisFudge0) ||
                       (tri2 < BasisFudge0) ||
                       (tri1 > BasisFudge1) || ((tri1 + tri2) > BasisFudge1))) {
                    dist = (r->base[2] - (tri1 * pre[2]) - (tri2 * pre[5]) - vert0[2]);

                    {
                      float fc[3];
                      float trans;

                      r->tri1 = tri1;
                      r->tri2 = tri2;
                      r->dist = dist;
                      r->prim = prm;

                      {
                        float w2;
                        w2 = _1 - (r->tri1 + r->tri2);

                        fc[0] =
                          (prm->c2[0] * r->tri1) + (prm->c3[0] * r->tri2) +
                          (prm->c1[0] * w2);
                        fc[1] =
                          (prm->c2[1] * r->tri1) + (prm->c3[1] * r->tri2) +
                          (prm->c1[1] * w2);
                        fc[2] =
                          (prm->c2[2] * r->tri1) + (prm->c3[2] * r->tri2) +
                          (prm->c1[2] * w2);
                      }

                      trans = CharacterInterpolate(BI->G, prm->char_id, fc);

                      if(trans == _0) { /* opaque? return immed. */
                        if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                          if(nearest_shadow) {
                            if(dist < r_dist) {
                              minIndex = prm->vert;
                              r_tri1 = tri1;
                              r_tri2 = tri2;
                              r_dist = dist;
                              r_trans = (r->trans = trans);
                            }
                          } else {
                            r->prim = prm;
                            r->trans = _0;
                            r->dist = dist;
                            return (1);
                          }
                        }
                      } else if(trans_shadows) {
                        if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                           ((r_trans > trans) ||
                            (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist) && (r_trans >= trans)))) {
                          minIndex = prm->vert;
                          r_tri1 = tri1;
                          r_tri2 = tri2;
                          r_dist = dist;
                          r_trans = (r->trans = trans);
                        }
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;

            case cPrimTriangle:
              {
                float *pre = BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3;

                if(pre[6]) {
                  float *vert0 = BI->Vertex + prm->vert * 3;

                  float tvec0 = vt[0] - vert0[0];
                  float tvec1 = vt[1] - vert0[1];

                  tri1 = (tvec0 * pre[4] - tvec1 * pre[3]) * pre[7];
                  tri2 = -(tvec0 * pre[1] - tvec1 * pre[0]) * pre[7];
                  if(!((tri1 < BasisFudge0) ||
                       (tri2 < BasisFudge0) ||
                       (tri1 > BasisFudge1) || ((tri1 + tri2) > BasisFudge1))) {
                    float *tr = prm->tr;
                    float trans = _0;

                    dist = (r->base[2] - (tri1 * pre[2]) - (tri2 * pre[5]) - vert0[2]);

                    if(prm->trans != _0) {
                      trans =
                        (tr[1] * tri1) + (tr[2] * tri2) + (tr[0] * (_1 - (tri1 + tri2)));
                    }

                    if(trans == _0) {
                      if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                        if(nearest_shadow) {    /* do we need the nearest shadow? */
                          if(dist < r_dist) {
                            minIndex = prm->vert;
                            r_tri1 = tri1;
                            r_tri2 = tri2;
                            r_dist = dist;
                            r_trans = (r->trans = trans);
                          }
                        } else {
                          r->prim = prm;
                          r->trans = _0;
                          r->dist = dist;
                          return (1);
                        }
                      }
                    } else if(trans_shadows) {
                      if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                         ((r_trans > trans) ||
                          (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist) && (r_trans >= trans)))) {
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r_tri1 = tri1;
                        r_tri2 = tri2;
                        r_dist = dist;
                        r_trans = (r->trans = trans);
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;

            case cPrimSphere:

              oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
              if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                if(prm->trans == _0) {
                  if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                    if(nearest_shadow) {
                      if(dist < r_dist) {
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                        r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                      }
                    } else {
                      r->prim = prm;
                      r->trans = prm->trans;
                      r->dist = dist;
                      return (1);
                    }
                  }
                } else if(trans_shadows) {
                  if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                     ((r_trans > prm->trans) ||
                      (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist) && (r_trans >= prm->trans)))) {
                    minIndex = prm->vert;
                    r_dist = dist;
                    r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                  }
                }
              }
              break;

            case cPrimEllipsoid:

              oppSq =
                ZLineClipPointNoZCheck(r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
              if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                if((dist < r_dist) || (trans_shadows && (r_trans != _0))) {
                  float *n1 = BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3;
                  if(LineClipEllipsoidPoint(r->base, minusZ,
                                            BI->Vertex + i * 3, &dist,
                                            BI->Radius[i], BI->Radius2[i],
                                            prm->n0, n1, n1 + 3, n1 + 6)) {

                    if(prm->trans == _0) {
                      if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                        if(nearest_shadow) {
                          if(dist < r_dist) {
                            minIndex = prm->vert;
                            r_dist = dist;
                            r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                          }
                        } else {
                          r->prim = prm;
                          r->trans = prm->trans;
                          r->dist = dist;
                          return (1);
                        }
                      }
                    } else if(trans_shadows) {
                      if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                         ((r_trans > prm->trans) ||
                          (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist)
                           && (r_trans >= prm->trans)))) {
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r_dist = dist;
                        r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            case cPrimCone:
              {
                float sph_rad, sph_rad_sq;
                if(ConeLineToSphereCapped(r->base, minusZ, BI->Vertex + i * 3,
                                          BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                          BI->Radius[i], prm->r2, prm->l1, sph, &tri1,
                                          &sph_rad, &sph_rad_sq, 1, 1)) {

                  oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, sph, &dist, sph_rad);
                  if(oppSq <= sph_rad_sq) {
                    dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((sph_rad_sq - oppSq)));

                    if(prm->trans == _0) {
                      if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                        if(nearest_shadow) {
                          if(dist < r_dist) {
                            if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                              r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;
                            r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                            r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                            r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                            minIndex = prm->vert;
                            r->trans = prm->trans;
                            r_dist = dist;
                            r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                          }
                        } else {
                          r->prim = prm;
                          r->trans = prm->trans;
                          r->dist = dist;
                          return (1);
                        }
                      }
                    } else if(trans_shadows) {
                      if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                         ((r_trans > prm->trans) ||
                          (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist)
                           && (r_trans >= prm->trans)))) {
                        if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                          r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;
                        r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                        r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                        r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                        minIndex = prm->vert;
                        r->trans = prm->trans;
                        r_dist = dist;
                        r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                      }
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            case cPrimCylinder:
              if(ZLineToSphereCapped(r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3,
                                     BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                                     BI->Radius[i], prm->l1, sph, &tri1, prm->cap1,
                                     prm->cap2, BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3)) {

                oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, sph, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
                if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                  dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                  if(prm->trans == _0) {
                    if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                      if(nearest_shadow) {
                        if(dist < r_dist) {
                          if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                            r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;
                          r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                          r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                          r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                          minIndex = prm->vert;
                          r->trans = prm->trans;
                          r_dist = dist;
                          r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                        }
                      } else {
                        r->prim = prm;
                        r->trans = prm->trans;
                        r->dist = dist;
                        return (1);
                      }
                    }
                  } else if(trans_shadows) {
                    if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                       ((r_trans > prm->trans) ||
                        (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist) && (r_trans >= prm->trans)))) {
                      if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                        r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;
                      r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                      r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                      r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                      minIndex = prm->vert;
                      r->trans = prm->trans;
                      r_dist = dist;
                      r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;

            case cPrimSausage:
              if(ZLineToSphere
                 (r->base, BI->Vertex + i * 3, BI->Normal + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3,
                  BI->Radius[i], prm->l1, sph, &tri1,
                  BI->Precomp + BI->Vert2Normal[i] * 3)) {
                oppSq = ZLineClipPoint(r->base, sph, &dist, BI->Radius[i]);
                if(oppSq <= BI->Radius2[i]) {
                  dist = (float) (sqrt1f(dist) - sqrt1f((BI->Radius2[i] - oppSq)));

                  if(prm->trans == _0) {
                    if(dist > -kR_SMALL4) {
                      if(nearest_shadow) {
                        if(dist < r_dist) {
                          if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                            r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;
                          r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                          r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                          r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                          minIndex = prm->vert;
                          r_dist = dist;
                          r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                        }
                      } else {
                        r->prim = prm;
                        r->trans = prm->trans;
                        r->dist = dist;
                        return (1);
                      }
                    }
                  } else if(trans_shadows) {
                    if((dist > -kR_SMALL4) &&
                       ((r_trans > prm->trans) ||
                        (nearest_shadow && (dist < r_dist) && (r_trans >= prm->trans)))) {
                      if(prm->l1 > kR_SMALL4)
                        r_tri1 = tri1 / prm->l1;

                      r_sphere0 = sph[0];
                      r_sphere1 = sph[1];
                      r_sphere2 = sph[2];
                      minIndex = prm->vert;
                      r_dist = dist;
                      r_trans = (r->trans = prm->trans);
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
              break;
            }                   /* end of switch */
          }
          /* end of if */
          i = ii;
        }                       /* end of while */
      }

      /* and of course stop when we hit the edge of the map */

      if(local_iflag)
        break;

      /* we've processed all primitives associated with this voxel, 
         so if an intersection has been found which occurs in front of
         the next voxel, then we can stop */

      /* this optimization invalid for transparent surfaces 

         if( minIndex > -1 ) 
         {
         int   aa,bb,cc;

         vt[2]   = r->base[2] - r_dist;
         MapLocus(BI->Map,vt,&aa,&bb,&cc);
         if(cc > c) 
         break;
         }
       */

      c--;
      xxtmp--;

    }                           /* end of while */

    if(minIndex > -1) {
      r_prim = BC->prim + vert2prim[minIndex];

      if((r_prim->type == cPrimSphere) || (r_prim->type == cPrimEllipsoid)) {
        const float *vv = BI->Vertex + minIndex * 3;
        r_sphere0 = vv[0];
        r_sphere1 = vv[1];
        r_sphere2 = vv[2];
      }
    }

    BC->interior_flag = local_iflag;
    r->tri1 = r_tri1;
    r->tri2 = r_tri2;
    r->prim = r_prim;
    r->dist = r_dist;
    r->trans = r_trans;
    r->sphere[0] = r_sphere0;
    r->sphere[1] = r_sphere1;
    r->sphere[2] = r_sphere2;
    return (minIndex);
  }                             /* end of if */
  BC->interior_flag = local_iflag;
  return (-1);
}

#if 0

/*========================================================================*/
void BasisOptimizeMap(CBasis * I, float *vertex, int n, int *vert2prim);
void BasisOptimizeMap(CBasis * I, float *vertex, int n, int *vert2prim)
{
  int *ip, *op;
  int k;
  int v2p;
  int i, ii;
  MapCache cache;
  int a, b, c, aa, bb, cc;
  int h;
  int *xxtmp, *elist;
  MapCacheInit(&cache, I->Map);
  int cnt = 0, tcnt = 0;
  elist = I->Map->EList;

#if 0
  for(k = 0; k < n; k++) {
    if(MapExclLocus(I->Map, vertex + 3 * k, &aa, &bb, &cc)) {
      for(a = aa - 1; a <= aa + 1; a++) {
        for(b = bb - 1; b <= bb + 1; b++) {
          xxtmp = I->Map->EHead + (a * I->Map->D1D2) + (b * I->Map->Dim[2]);
          for(c = cc - 1; c <= cc + 1; c++) {
#else
  {
    {
      for(a = I->Map->iMin[0]; a <= I->Map->iMax[0]; a++) {
        for(b = I->Map->iMin[1]; b <= I->Map->iMax[1]; b++) {
          xxtmp = I->Map->EHead + (a * I->Map->D1D2) + (b * I->Map->Dim[2]);
          for(c = I->Map->iMin[2]; c <= I->Map->iMax[2]; c++) {
#endif

            h = *(xxtmp + c);
            cnt = 0;
            tcnt = 0;
            if(h) {
              op = ip = elist + h;
              MapCacheReset(&cache);

              if(ip) {
                i = *(ip++);
                while(i >= 0) {
                  tcnt++;
                  v2p = vert2prim[i];
                  ii = *(ip++);
                  /*    printf("%d\n",v2p); */
                  if(!MapCached(&cache, v2p)) {
                    *(op++) = i;        /* copy/store */
                    MapCache(&cache, v2p);
                  } /* end of if */
                  else {
                    /* remove this vertex from the linked list -- we don't need it more than once */
                    cnt++;
                  }
                  i = ii;
                }               /* end of while */
                *op = -1;       /* terminate new list */
              }
              /*   printf("%6d %6d\n",tcnt,cnt); */
            }

          }
        }
      }
    }
  }

}
#endif


/*========================================================================*/
void BasisMakeMap(CBasis * I, int *vert2prim, CPrimitive * prim, int n_prim,
                  float *volume,
                  int group_id, int block_base,
                  int perspective, float front, float size_hint)
{
  register float *v;
  float ll;
  CPrimitive *prm;
  register int i;
  register int *tempRef;
  int n, h, q, x, y, z, j, k, l, e;
  int extra_vert = 0;
  float p[3], dd[3], *d1, *d2, vd[3], cx[3], cy[3];
  float *tempVertex;
  float xs, ys;
  int remapMode = true;         /* remap mode means that some objects will span more
                                 * than one voxel, so we have to worry about populating
                                 * those voxels and also about eliminating duplicates 
                                 * when traversing the neighbor lists */
  float min[3], max[3], extent[6];
  float sep;
  float diagonal[3];
  float l1, l2;
  float bh, ch;
  int n_voxel;

  const float _0 = 0.0;
  const float _p5 = 0.5;

  PRINTFD(I->G, FB_Ray)
    " BasisMakeMap: I->NVertex %d [(%8.3f, %8.3f, %8.3f),...]\n", I->NVertex,
    I->Vertex[0], I->Vertex[1], I->Vertex[2]
    ENDFD;

  sep = I->MinVoxel;
  if(sep == _0) {
    remapMode = false;
    sep = I->MaxRadius;         /* also will imply no remapping of vertices */
  }
  /* we need to get a sense of the actual size in order to avoid sep being too small */

  v = I->Vertex;

  min[0] = max[0] = v[0];
  min[1] = max[1] = v[1];
  min[2] = max[2] = v[2];

  v += 3;

  {
    register int a;
    for(a = 1; a < I->NVertex; a++) {
      if(min[0] > v[0])
        min[0] = v[0];
      if(max[0] < v[0])
        max[0] = v[0];

      if(min[1] > v[1])
        min[1] = v[1];
      if(max[1] < v[1])
        max[1] = v[1];

      if(min[2] > v[2])
        min[2] = v[2];
      if(max[2] < v[2])
        max[2] = v[2];

      v += 3;
    }
  }

  if(volume) {

    /*
       if(min[0] > volume[0])      min[0]   = volume[0];
       if(max[0] < volume[1])      max[0]   = volume[1];
       if(min[1] > volume[2])      min[1]   = volume[2];
       if(max[1] < volume[3])      max[1]   = volume[3];
       if(min[2] > (-volume[5]))   min[2]   = (-volume[5]);
       if(max[2] < (-volume[4]))   max[2]   = (-volume[4]);
     */

    if(min[0] < volume[0])
      min[0] = volume[0];
    if(max[0] > volume[1])
      max[0] = volume[1];
    if(min[1] < volume[2])
      min[1] = volume[2];
    if(max[1] > volume[3])
      max[1] = volume[3];
    if(min[2] > (-volume[5]))
      min[2] = (-volume[5]);
    if(max[2] < (-volume[4]))
      max[2] = (-volume[4]);

    PRINTFB(I->G, FB_Ray, FB_Debugging)
      " BasisMakeMap: (%8.3f,%8.3f),(%8.3f,%8.3f),(%8.3f,%8.3f)\n",
      volume[0], volume[1], volume[2], volume[3], volume[4], volume[5]
      ENDFB(I->G);
  }

  /* don't break up space unnecessarily if we only have a few vertices... */

  if(I->NVertex) {
    l1 = (float) fabs(max[0] - min[0]);
    l2 = (float) fabs(max[1] - min[1]);

    if(l1 < l2)
      l1 = l2;

    l2 = (float) fabs(max[2] - min[2]);

    if(l1 < l2)
      l1 = l2;

    if(l1 < kR_SMALL4)
      l1 = 100.0;

    if(I->NVertex < (l1 / sep))
      sep = (l1 / I->NVertex);
  }

  if(Feedback(I->G, FB_Ray, FB_Debugging)) {
    dump3f(min, " BasisMakeMap: min");
    dump3f(max, " BasisMakeMap: max");
    dump3f(I->Vertex, " BasisMakeMap: I->Vertex");
    fflush(stdout);
  }

  sep = MapGetSeparation(I->G, sep, max, min, diagonal);        /* this needs to be a minimum 
                                                                 * estimate of the actual value */
  /* here we have to carry out a complicated work-around in order to
   * efficiently encode our primitives into the map in a way that doesn't
   * require expanding the map cutoff to the size of the largest object*/
  if(remapMode) {
    register int a, b, c;
    
    if(sep < size_hint)         /* this keeps us from wasting time & memory on unnecessary subdivision */
      sep = size_hint;
    
    {
      register int *vert2prim_a = vert2prim;
      for(a = 0; a < I->NVertex; a++) {
        prm = prim + *(vert2prim_a++);

        switch (prm->type) {
        case cPrimTriangle:
        case cPrimCharacter:
          if(a == prm->vert) {    /* only do this calculation for one of the three vertices */
            l1 = (float) length3f(I->Precomp + I->Vert2Normal[a] * 3);
            l2 = (float) length3f(I->Precomp + I->Vert2Normal[a] * 3 + 3);
            if((l1 >= sep) || (l2 >= sep)) {
              b = (int) ceil(l1 / sep) + 1;
              c = (int) ceil(l2 / sep) + 1;
              extra_vert += 4 * b * c;
            }
          }
          break;

        case cPrimCone:
        case cPrimCylinder:
        case cPrimSausage:
          if((prm->l1 + 2 * prm->r1) >= sep) {
            q = ((int) (2 * (floor(prm->r1 / sep) + 1))) + 1;
            q = q * q * ((int) ceil((prm->l1 + 2 * prm->r1) / sep) + 2);
            extra_vert += q;
          }
          break;
        case cPrimEllipsoid:
        case cPrimSphere:
          if(prm->r1 >= sep) {
            b = (int) (2 * floor(prm->r1 / sep) + 1);
            extra_vert += (b * b * b);
          }
          break;
        }
      }                           /* for */
    }

    extra_vert += I->NVertex;
    tempVertex =
      CacheAlloc(I->G, float, extra_vert * 3, group_id, cCache_basis_tempVertex);
    tempRef = CacheAlloc(I->G, int, extra_vert, group_id, cCache_basis_tempRef);

    ErrChkPtr(I->G, tempVertex);        /* can happen if extra vert is unreasonable */
    ErrChkPtr(I->G, tempRef);

    /* lower indexes->flags, top is ref->lower index */

    {
      register float *vv, *d;
      int *vert2prim_a = vert2prim;

      n = I->NVertex;

      v = tempVertex;
      vv = I->Vertex;

      memcpy(v, vv, n * sizeof(float) * 3);
      vv += n * 3;
      v += n * 3;

      for(a = 0; a < I->NVertex; a++) {

        prm = prim + *(vert2prim_a++);

        switch (prm->type) {
        case cPrimTriangle:
        case cPrimCharacter:
          if(a == prm->vert) {
            /* only do this calculation for one of the three vertices */
            d1 = I->Precomp + I->Vert2Normal[a] * 3;
            d2 = I->Precomp + I->Vert2Normal[a] * 3 + 3;
            vv = I->Vertex + a * 3;
            l1 = (float) length3f(d1);
            l2 = (float) length3f(d2);
            if((l1 >= sep) || (l2 >= sep)) {
              b = (int) floor(l1 / sep) + 1;
              c = (int) floor(l2 / sep) + 1;
              extra_vert += b * c;
              bh = (float) (b / 2) + 1;
              ch = (float) (c / 2) + 1;

              for(x = 0; x < bh; x++) {
                const float xb = (float) x / b;

                for(y = 0; y < ch; y++) {
                  const float yc = (float) y / c;

                  *(v++) = vv[0] + (d1[0] * xb) + (d2[0] * yc);
                  *(v++) = vv[1] + (d1[1] * xb) + (d2[1] * yc);
                  *(v++) = vv[2] + (d1[2] * xb) + (d2[2] * yc);

                  tempRef[n++] = a;
                }
              }

              for(x = 0; x < bh; x++) {
                const float xb = (float) x / b;

                for(y = 0; y < ch; y++) {
                  const float yc = (float) y / c;

                  if((xb + yc) < _p5) {
                    *(v++) = vv[0] + d1[0] * (_p5 + xb) + (d2[0] * yc);
                    *(v++) = vv[1] + d1[1] * (_p5 + xb) + (d2[1] * yc);
                    *(v++) = vv[2] + d1[2] * (_p5 + xb) + (d2[2] * yc);

                    tempRef[n++] = a;

                    *(v++) = vv[0] + (d1[0] * xb) + d2[0] * (_p5 + yc);
                    *(v++) = vv[1] + (d1[1] * xb) + d2[1] * (_p5 + yc);
                    *(v++) = vv[2] + (d1[2] * xb) + d2[2] * (_p5 + yc);

                    tempRef[n++] = a;
                  }
                }
              }
            }
          }                     /* if */
          break;
        case cPrimCone:
        case cPrimCylinder:
        case cPrimSausage:

          ll = prm->l1 + 2 * prm->r1;

          if(ll >= sep) {
            d = I->Normal + 3 * I->Vert2Normal[a];
            vv = I->Vertex + a * 3;
            get_system1f3f(d, cx, cy);  /* creates an orthogonal system about d */

            p[0] = vv[0] - d[0] * prm->r1;
            p[1] = vv[1] - d[1] * prm->r1;
            p[2] = vv[2] - d[2] * prm->r1;
            dd[0] = d[0] * sep;
            dd[1] = d[1] * sep;
            dd[2] = d[2] * sep;

            q = (int) floor(prm->r1 / sep) + 1;

            while(1) {
              vd[0] = (p[0] += dd[0]);
              vd[1] = (p[1] += dd[1]);
              vd[2] = (p[2] += dd[2]);

              for(x = -q; x <= q; x++) {
                for(y = -q; y <= q; y++) {
                  xs = x * sep;
                  ys = y * sep;
                  *(v++) = vd[0] + xs * cx[0] + ys * cy[0];
                  *(v++) = vd[1] + xs * cx[1] + ys * cy[1];
                  *(v++) = vd[2] + xs * cx[2] + ys * cy[2];

                  tempRef[n++] = a;
                }
              }

              if(ll <= _0)
                break;
              ll -= sep;
            }
          }
          break;
        case cPrimEllipsoid:
        case cPrimSphere:
          if(prm->r1 >= sep) {
            q = (int) floor(prm->r1 / sep);
            vv = I->Vertex + a * 3;

            for(x = -q; x <= q; x++) {
              for(y = -q; y <= q; y++) {
                for(z = -q; z <= q; z++) {
                  *(v++) = vv[0] + x * sep;
                  *(v++) = vv[1] + y * sep;
                  *(v++) = vv[2] + z * sep;

                  tempRef[n++] = a;
                }
              }
            }
          }
          break;
        }                       /* end of switch */
      }
    }
    if(n > extra_vert) {
      printf("BasisMakeMap: %d>%d\n", n, extra_vert);
      ErrFatal(I->G, "BasisMakeMap",
               "used too many extra vertices (this indicates a bug)...\n");
    }
    PRINTFB(I->G, FB_Ray, FB_Blather)
      " BasisMakeMap: %d total vertices\n", n ENDFB(I->G);

    if(volume) {
      v = tempVertex;

      min[0] = max[0] = v[0];
      min[1] = max[1] = v[1];
      min[2] = max[2] = v[2];

      v += 3;

      if(Feedback(I->G, FB_Ray, FB_Debugging)) {
        dump3f(min, " BasisMakeMap: remapped min");
        dump3f(max, " BasisMakeMap: remapped max");
        fflush(stdout);
      }

      for(a = 1; a < n; a++) {
        if(min[0] > v[0])
          min[0] = v[0];
        if(max[0] < v[0])
          max[0] = v[0];

        if(min[1] > v[1])
          min[1] = v[1];
        if(max[1] < v[1])
          max[1] = v[1];

        if(min[2] > v[2])
          min[2] = v[2];
        if(max[2] < v[2])
          max[2] = v[2];
        v += 3;
      }

      if(Feedback(I->G, FB_Ray, FB_Debugging)) {
        dump3f(min, " BasisMakeMap: remapped min");
        dump3f(max, " BasisMakeMap: remapped max");
        fflush(stdout);
      }
      if(min[0] < volume[0])
        min[0] = volume[0];
      if(max[0] > volume[1])
        max[0] = volume[1];
      if(min[1] < volume[2])
        min[1] = volume[2];
      if(max[1] > volume[3])
        max[1] = volume[3];

      if(min[2] < (-volume[5]))
        min[2] = (-volume[5]);
      if(max[2] > (-volume[4]))
        max[2] = (-volume[4]);

      extent[0] = min[0];
      extent[1] = max[0];
      extent[2] = min[1];
      extent[3] = max[1];
      extent[4] = min[2];
      extent[5] = max[2];
      PRINTFB(I->G, FB_Ray, FB_Blather)
        " BasisMakeMap: Extent [%8.2f %8.2f] [%8.2f %8.2f] [%8.2f %8.2f]\n",
        extent[0], extent[1], extent[2], extent[3], extent[4], extent[5]
        ENDFB(I->G);
      I->Map = MapNewCached(I->G, -sep, tempVertex, n, extent, group_id, block_base);
    } else {
      I->Map = MapNewCached(I->G, sep, tempVertex, n, NULL, group_id, block_base);
    }

    n_voxel = I->Map->Dim[0] * I->Map->Dim[1] * I->Map->Dim[2];

    if(perspective) {

      /* this is a new optimization which prevents primitives
         contained entirely within a single voxel from spilling over
         into neighboring voxels for performance of intersection
         checks (NOTE: this currently only helps with triangles, and
         is only useful in optimizing between Z layers).  The main
         impact of this optimization is to reduce the size of the
         express list (I->Map->Elist) array by about 3-fold */

      int *prm_spanner = Calloc(int, n_prim);
      int *spanner = Calloc(int, n);
      float *v = tempVertex;
      int j, k, l, jj, kk, ll;
      int nVertex = I->NVertex;
      int prm_index;
      MapType *map = I->Map;

      /* figure out which primitives span more than one voxel */
      for(a = 0; a < n; a++) {
        if(a < nVertex)
          prm_index = vert2prim[a];
        else
          prm_index = vert2prim[tempRef[a]];
        if(!prm_spanner[prm_index]) {
          prm = prim + prm_index;
          {
            float *vv = prm->vert * 3 + I->Vertex;
            switch (prm->type) {
            case cPrimTriangle:
            case cPrimCharacter:
              MapLocus(map, v, &j, &k, &l);
              MapLocus(map, vv, &jj, &kk, &ll);
              if((j != jj) || (k != kk) || (l != ll)) {
                prm_spanner[prm_index] = 1;
#if 0
                zero3f(prm->c1);
                zero3f(prm->c2);
                zero3f(prm->c3);
                prm->c1[0] = 1.0F;
                prm->c2[0] = 1.0F;
                prm->c3[0] = 1.0F;
#endif

              }
              break;
            default:           /* currently we aren't optimizing other primitives */
              prm_spanner[prm_index] = 1;
              break;
            }
          }
        }
        v += 3;
      }
      /* now flag associated vertices */
      for(a = 0; a < n; a++) {
        if(a < nVertex)
          prm_index = vert2prim[a];
        else
          prm_index = vert2prim[tempRef[a]];
        spanner[a] = prm_spanner[prm_index];
      }
      /* and do the optimized expansion */
      MapSetupExpressPerp(I->Map, tempVertex, front, n, true, spanner);
      FreeP(spanner);
      FreeP(prm_spanner);
    } else if(n_voxel < (3 * n)) {
      MapSetupExpressXY(I->Map, n, true);
    } else {
      MapSetupExpressXYVert(I->Map, tempVertex, n, true);
    }

    {
      register MapType *map = I->Map;
      register int *sp, *ip, *ip0, ii;
      register int *elist = map->EList, *ehead = map->EHead;
      register int *elist_new = elist, *ehead_new = ehead;
      register int newelem = 0, neelem = -map->NEElem;
      register int i_nVertex = I->NVertex;
      const int iMin0 = map->iMin[0];
      const int iMin1 = map->iMin[1];
      const int iMin2 = map->iMin[2];
      const int iMax0 = map->iMax[0];
      const int iMax1 = map->iMax[1];
      const int iMax2 = map->iMax[2];

#if 0
      elist_new =
        VLACacheAlloc(I->G, int, map->NEElem, group_id,
                      block_base + cCache_map_elist_new_offset);
      ehead_new =
        CacheCalloc(I->G, int, (map->Dim[0] * map->Dim[1] * map->Dim[2]), group_id,
                    block_base + cCache_map_ehead_new_offset);
#endif
      /* now do a filter-reassignment pass to remap fake vertices
         to the original line vertex while deleting duplicate entries */

      memset(tempRef, 0, sizeof(int) * i_nVertex);

      if(n_voxel < (3 * n)) {   /* faster to traverse the entire map */
        int *start;
        for(a = iMin0; a <= iMax0; a++) {
          for(b = iMin1; b <= iMax1; b++) {
            for(c = iMin2; c <= iMax2; c++) {
              start = MapEStart(map, a, b, c);
              h = *start;
              if((h < 0) && (h >= neelem)) {
                sp = elist - h;
                *(start) = -h;  /* flip sign */
                i = *(sp++);
                if(ehead_new != ehead) {
                  ehead_new[(start - ehead) - 1] = newelem;
                  ip = ip0 = (elist_new + newelem);
                } else {
                  ip = ip0 = (sp - 1);
                }

                while(i >= 0) {
                  register int ii = *(sp++);
                  if(i >= i_nVertex)    /* reference -- remap */
                    i = tempRef[i];
                  if(!tempRef[i]) {     /*eliminate duplicates */
                    tempRef[i] = 1;
                    *(ip++) = i;
                  }
                  i = ii;
                }

                *(ip++) = -1;   /* terminate list */
                newelem += (ip - ip0);

                /* now reset flags efficiently */
                i = *(ip0++);
                while(i >= 0) { /* unroll */
                  ii = *(ip0++);
                  tempRef[i] = 0;
                  if((i = ii) >= 0) {
                    ii = *(ip0++);
                    tempRef[i] = 0;
                    if((i = ii) >= 0) {
                      ii = *(ip0++);
                      tempRef[i] = 0;
                      i = ii;
                    }
                  }
                }
              }
            }                   /* for c */
          }                     /* for b */
        }                       /* for a */
      } else {
        int *start;
        int jm1, jp1, km1, kp1, lm1, lp1;
        MapType *map = I->Map;

        v = tempVertex;

        for(e = 0; e < n; e++) {

          MapLocus(map, v, &j, &k, &l);
          jm1 = j - 1;
          jp1 = j + 1;
          km1 = k - 1;
          kp1 = k + 1;
          lm1 = l - 1;
          lp1 = l + 1;

          if(perspective) {     /* for normal maps */

            register int *iPtr1 =
              map->EHead + ((j - 1) * map->D1D2) + ((k - 1) * map->Dim[2]) + (l - 1);
            for(a = jm1; a <= jp1; a++) {
              register int *iPtr2 = iPtr1;
              if((a >= iMin0) && (a <= iMax0)) {
                for(b = km1; b <= kp1; b++) {
                  register int *iPtr3 = iPtr2;
                  if((b >= iMin1) && (b <= iMax1)) {
                    for(c = lm1; c <= lp1; c++) {
                      if((c >= iMin2) && (c <= iMax2)) {

                        start = iPtr3;
                        /*start   = MapEStart(map,a,b,c); */
                        h = *start;
                        if((h < 0) && (h >= neelem)) {
                          sp = elist - h;
                          (*start) = -h;        /* no repeat visits */
                          i = *(sp++);
                          if(ehead_new != ehead) {
                            ehead_new[(start - ehead)] = newelem;
                            ip = ip0 = (elist_new + newelem);
                          } else {
                            ip = ip0 = (sp - 1);
                          }

                          while(i >= 0) {
                            register int ii = *(sp++);
                            if(i >= i_nVertex)
                              i = tempRef[i];
                            if(!tempRef[i]) {   /*eliminate duplicates */
                              tempRef[i] = 1;
                              *(ip++) = i;
                            }
                            i = ii;
                          }

                          *(ip++) = -1; /* terminate list */
                          newelem += (ip - ip0);

                          /* now reset flags efficiently */
                          i = *(ip0++);

                          while(i >= 0) {       /* unroll */
                            ii = *(ip0++);
                            tempRef[i] = 0;
                            if((i = ii) >= 0) {
                              ii = *(ip0++);
                              tempRef[i] = 0;
                              if((i = ii) >= 0) {
                                ii = *(ip0++);
                                tempRef[i] = 0;
                                i = ii;
                              }
                            }
                          }
                        }       /* h > 0 */
                      }
                      iPtr3++;
                    }
                  }
                  iPtr2 += map->Dim[2];
                }
              }
              iPtr1 += map->D1D2;
            }
          } else {              /* for XY maps... */

            c = l;
            {
              register int *iPtr1 =
                ehead + ((j - 1) * map->D1D2) + ((k - 1) * map->Dim[2]) + c;
              if((c >= iMin2) && (c <= iMax2)) {

                for(a = jm1; a <= jp1; a++) {
                  register int *iPtr2 = iPtr1;
                  if((a >= iMin0) && (a <= iMax0)) {

                    for(b = km1; b <= kp1; b++) {
                      if((b >= iMin1) && (b <= iMax1)) {
                        start = iPtr2;
                        /*start   = MapEStart(map,a,b,c); */
                        h = *start;
                        if((h < 0) && (h >= neelem)) {

                          sp = elist - h;
                          (*start) = -h;        /* no repeat visits */
                          i = *(sp++);
                          if(ehead_new != ehead) {
                            ehead_new[(start - ehead)] = newelem;
                            ip = ip0 = (elist_new + newelem);
                          } else {
                            ip = ip0 = sp - 1;
                          }

                          while(i >= 0) {
                            register int ii = *(sp++);

                            if(i >= i_nVertex)
                              i = tempRef[i];

                            if(!tempRef[i]) {   /*eliminate duplicates */
                              tempRef[i] = 1;
                              *(ip++) = i;
                            }
                            i = ii;
                          }

                          *(ip++) = -1; /* terminate list */
                          newelem += (ip - ip0);

                          /* now reset flags efficiently */
                          i = *(ip0++);
                          while(i >= 0) {       /* unroll */
                            ii = *(ip0++);
                            tempRef[i] = 0;
                            if((i = ii) >= 0) {
                              ii = *(ip0++);
                              tempRef[i] = 0;
                              if((i = ii) >= 0) {
                                ii = *(ip0++);
                                tempRef[i] = 0;
                                i = ii;
                              }
                            }
                          }
                        }       /* h > 0 */
                      }
                      iPtr2 += map->Dim[2];
                    }           /* for b */
                  }
                  iPtr1 += map->D1D2;
                }               /* for a */
              }
            }
          }
          v += 3;               /* happens for EVERY e! */
        }                       /* for e */
      }
      if(ehead != ehead_new) {
        CacheFreeP(I->G, map->EHead, group_id, block_base + cCache_map_ehead_offset,
                   false);
        VLACacheFreeP(I->G, map->EList, group_id, block_base + cCache_map_elist_offset,
                      false);
        map->EList = elist_new;
        map->EHead = ehead_new;
        map->NEElem = newelem;
        MemoryCacheReplaceBlock(I->G, group_id, block_base + cCache_map_ehead_new_offset,
                                block_base + cCache_map_ehead_offset);
        MemoryCacheReplaceBlock(I->G, group_id, block_base + cCache_map_elist_new_offset,
                                block_base + cCache_map_elist_offset);
        VLACacheSize(G, map->EList, int, map->NEElem, group_id,
                     block_base + cCache_map_elist_offset);
      }
    }

    CacheFreeP(I->G, tempVertex, group_id, cCache_basis_tempVertex, false);
    CacheFreeP(I->G, tempRef, group_id, cCache_basis_tempRef, false);

  } else {
    /* simple sphere mode */
    I->Map = MapNewCached(I->G, -sep, I->Vertex, I->NVertex, NULL, group_id, block_base);
    if(perspective) {
      MapSetupExpressPerp(I->Map, I->Vertex, front, I->NVertex, false, NULL);
    } else {
      MapSetupExpressXYVert(I->Map, I->Vertex, I->NVertex, false);
    }
  }
}


/*========================================================================*/
void BasisInit(PyMOLGlobals * G, CBasis * I, int group_id)
{
  I->G = G;
  I->Vertex = VLACacheAlloc(I->G, float, 1, group_id, cCache_basis_vertex);
  I->Radius = VLACacheAlloc(I->G, float, 1, group_id, cCache_basis_radius);
  I->Radius2 = VLACacheAlloc(I->G, float, 1, group_id, cCache_basis_radius2);
  I->Normal = VLACacheAlloc(I->G, float, 1, group_id, cCache_basis_normal);
  I->Vert2Normal = VLACacheAlloc(I->G, int, 1, group_id, cCache_basis_vert2normal);
  I->Precomp = VLACacheAlloc(I->G, float, 1, group_id, cCache_basis_precomp);
  I->Map = NULL;
  I->NVertex = 0;
  I->NNormal = 0;
}


/*========================================================================*/
void BasisFinish(CBasis * I, int group_id)
{
  if(I->Map) {
    MapFree(I->Map);
    I->Map = NULL;
  }
  VLACacheFreeP(I->G, I->Radius2, group_id, cCache_basis_radius2, false);
  VLACacheFreeP(I->G, I->Radius, group_id, cCache_basis_radius, false);
  VLACacheFreeP(I->G, I->Vertex, group_id, cCache_basis_vertex, false);
  VLACacheFreeP(I->G, I->Vert2Normal, group_id, cCache_basis_vert2normal, false);
  VLACacheFreeP(I->G, I->Normal, group_id, cCache_basis_normal, false);
  VLACacheFreeP(I->G, I->Precomp, group_id, cCache_basis_precomp, false);
  I->Vertex = NULL;
}


/*========================================================================*/

void BasisTrianglePrecompute(float *v0, float *v1, float *v2, float *pre)
{
  float det;

  subtract3f(v1, v0, pre);
  subtract3f(v2, v0, pre + 3);

  det = pre[0] * pre[4] - pre[1] * pre[3];

  if(fabs(det) < EPSILON)
    *(pre + 6) = 0.0F;
  else {
    *(pre + 6) = 1.0F;
    *(pre + 7) = 1.0F / det;
  }
}

void BasisTrianglePrecomputePerspective(float *v0, float *v1, float *v2, float *pre)
{
  subtract3f(v1, v0, pre);
  subtract3f(v2, v0, pre + 3);
}

void BasisCylinderSausagePrecompute(float *dir, float *pre)
{
  float ln = (float) (1.0f / sqrt1f(dir[1] * dir[1] + dir[0] * dir[0]));
  pre[0] = dir[1] * ln;
  pre[1] = -dir[0] * ln;
}

#else
typedef int this_file_is_no_longer_empty;

#endif

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